Neogen Dermatology V.biome Advanced Eye Cream Ingredients Explained

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Published on April 19, 2022. Submitted by zoeliewho.

Overview

What it is

Eye moisturizer with 85 ingredients that contains ceramides, exfoliants, hyaluronic acid, niacinamide, peptides, Vitamin C and Vitamin E

Cool Features

It is vegan and reef safe

Suited For

It has ingredients that are good for fighting acne, anti aging, dry skin, brightening skin, sensitive skin, oily skin, reducing pores, scar healing, dark spots and better texture

Free From

It doesn't contain any harsh alcohols, common allergens, parabens, silicones or sulfates

Fun facts

Neogen is from South Korea. This product is used in 9 routines created by our community.

We independently verify ingredients and our claims are backed by peer-reviewed research. Does this product need an update? Let us know.

Ingredient List (85)

Water, Glycerin, Caprylic/Capric Triglyceride, Dicaprylyl Carbonate, Polyglyceryl-3 Methylglucose Distearate, Propanediol, Niacinamide, 1,2-Hexanediol, Cetearyl Alcohol, Pentaerythrityl Tetraethylhexanoate, Malva Sylvestris Flower Extract, Glyceryl Stearate, Cetyl Alcohol, Stearyl Alcohol, Sorbitan Stearate, Panthenol, Cetearyl Glucoside, Hydrogenated Lecithin, Sodium Polyacryloyldimethyl Taurate, Carbomer , Tromethamine, Ethylhexylglycerin, Xanthan Gum, Anthemis Nobilis Flower Oil, Hydrogenated Polydecene, Allantoin, Thuja Occidentalis Leaf Oil, Adenosine, Lactococcus Ferment Lysate, Ascorbic Acid, Citrus Aurantium Amara Flower Extract, Trideceth-10, Glucose, Collagen Extract, Caprylyl Glycol, Oenothera Biennis Oil, Ceramide NP, Linum Usitatissimum Seed Oil, Salvia Hispanica Seed Oil, Squalane, Cyanocobalamin, Acetyl Hexapeptide-8, Riboflavin, Thiamine Hcl, Biotin, Helianthus Annuus Seed Oil, Olea Europaea Fruit Oil, Maltodextrin, Persea Gratissima Fruit Extract, Xylitylglucoside, Cetyl Ethylhexanoate, Anhydroxylitol, Sodium Starch Octenylsuccinate, Calcium Pantothenate, Xylitol, Lactobacillus Ferment Lysate, Sodium Ascorbyl Phosphate, Butylene Glycol, Polyglyceryl-10 Diisostearate, Lupinus Albus Seed Extract, Tocopheryl Acetate, Pyridoxine Hcl, Hydroxydecyl Ubiquinone, Lecithin, Sodium Hyaluronate, Polysorbate 20, Menadione, Palmitoyl Tripeptide-5, Silica, Tocopherol, Pentylene Glycol, Hydroxypropyltrimonium Hyaluronate, Disodium EDTA, Copper Tripeptide-1, Hydrolyzed Hyaluronic Acid, Sodium Acetylated Hyaluronate, Sodium Hyaluronate Crosspolymer, Tripeptide-1, Palmitoyl Tripeptide-1, Tripeptide-2, Hexapeptide-11, Palmitoyl Tetrapeptide-7, Palmitoyl Pentapeptide-4, Hexapeptide-9, Nonapeptide-1

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You should know

Here's our breakdown of the notable ingredients, benefits, and concerns we determined from the ingredients in this product. Click any item to learn more.

Notable Ingredients

Vitamin C (2)
Vitamin E (2)
Exfoliators
Niacinamide
Ceramides
Hyaluronic Acid (4)
Peptides (11)

Benefits

Hydrating (5)
Good For Oily Skin
Redness Reducing (5)
Reduces Irritation (4)
Skin Texture (2)
Reduces Large Pores
Anti-Aging (7)
Dark Spots (3)
Scar Healing (5)
Acne Fighting
Brightening (6)

Concerns

May Worsen Oily Skin (3)
Acne Trigger
Irritating
Rosacea
Eczema

Ingredient Info

Click any item below to learn more and view relevant ingredients.
alcohol-free
silicon-free
fragrance-free
sulfate-free
paraben-free
oil-free
fungal-acne safe
reef-safe
eu-allergen-free
vegan
cruelty-free

Ingredients Overview

Here's our quick-to-read summary of the ingredients in this product. Keep scrolling if you'd like to learn more about what each ingredient does!
Ingredient
Features
1
Skin Conditioning, Solvent
2
Humectant, Skin Conditioning, Skin Protecting, Solvent
0 / 0
Helps hydrate Dry Skin IconHelps brighten skin Icon
3
Masking, Skin Conditioning
4
Emollient, Skin Conditioning
5
Emulsifying
Not safe for Fungal Acne Icon
6
Solvent
7
Smoothing
Niacinamide IconGood for Oily Skin IconHelps reduce Skin Redness IconGood for Minimizing Pores IconGood for Dark Spots IconHelps fight Acne IconHelps brighten skin Icon
8
Skin Conditioning, Solvent
9
Emollient, Emulsifying, Emulsion Stabilising
2 / 1
Fatty Alcohol IconMay worsen Oily Skin IconBad for Acne Prone Skin IconNot safe for Fungal Acne Icon
10
Emollient
11
Skin Conditioning
12
Emollient, Emulsifying
1 / 0
Not safe for Fungal Acne Icon
13
Emollient, Emulsifying, Emulsion Stabilising, Masking
2 / 2
Fatty Alcohol Icon
14
Emollient, Emulsifying, Emulsion Stabilising, Masking
2 / 2
Fatty Alcohol Icon
15
Emulsifying
0 / 1
Not safe for Fungal Acne Icon
16
Skin Conditioning
0 / 0
Helps reduce irritation Icon
17
Emulsifying
18
Emulsifying, Skin Conditioning
19
Emulsion Stabilising
20
Emulsion Stabilising, Gel Forming
1 / 0
21
Buffering, Masking
22
Skin Conditioning
23
Emulsifying, Emulsion Stabilising, Gel Forming, Skin Conditioning
24
Masking, Perfuming, Skin Conditioning
Fragrance IconOil Icon
25
Emollient, Masking, Skin Conditioning, Solvent
26
Skin Conditioning, Skin Protecting, Soothing
0 / 0
Helps reduce Skin Redness IconHelps reduce irritation IconGood for Scar Healing Icon
27
Masking, Perfuming, Tonic
Fragrance IconOil Icon
28
Skin Conditioning
Helps with Anti-Aging IconGood for Scar Healing Icon
29
Skin Conditioning
30
Antioxidant, Buffering, Masking, Skin Conditioning
Vitamin C IconAntioxidant IconHelps reduce Skin Redness IconGood for Skin Texture IconHelps with Anti-Aging IconGood for Dark Spots IconGood for Scar Healing IconHelps brighten skin Icon
31
Refreshing, Skin Conditioning
32
Cleansing
33
Humectant
34
Skin Conditioning
Helps with Anti-Aging Icon
35
Emollient, Humectant, Skin Conditioning
36
Emollient
3 / 2
Oil IconHelps reduce irritation IconNot safe for Fungal Acne Icon
37
Skin Conditioning
Ceramide IconHelps hydrate Dry Skin IconHelps reduce Skin Redness IconHelps reduce irritation IconHelps with Anti-Aging Icon
38
Perfuming, Skin Conditioning
Fragrance IconOil IconMay worsen Oily Skin IconNot safe for Fungal Acne Icon
39
Moisturising, Skin Conditioning
Oil IconNot safe for Fungal Acne Icon
40
Emollient, Skin Conditioning
1 / 0
Helps hydrate Dry Skin Icon
41
Skin Conditioning
42
Humectant, Skin Conditioning
Peptide Icon
43
Cosmetic Colorant, Skin Conditioning
44
Masking, Skin Conditioning
45
Antiseborrhoeic, Skin Conditioning
46
Emollient, Masking, Skin Conditioning
0 / 0
Oil IconHelps hydrate Dry Skin IconMay worsen Oily Skin IconNot safe for Fungal Acne Icon
47
Masking, Perfuming, Skin Conditioning
0-2 / 0
Fragrance IconOil IconNot safe for Fungal Acne Icon
48
Absorbent, Emulsion Stabilising, Skin Conditioning
49
Emollient, Moisturising, Skin Conditioning, Smoothing, Soothing
50
Humectant, Skin Conditioning
51
Emollient
52
Humectant, Skin Conditioning
53
Absorbent, Emulsion Stabilising
54
55
Humectant, Skin Conditioning
56
Skin Conditioning
57
Antioxidant
Vitamin C IconAntioxidant IconHelps reduce Skin Redness IconGood for Skin Texture IconHelps with Anti-Aging IconGood for Dark Spots IconGood for Scar Healing IconHelps brighten skin Icon
58
Humectant, Masking, Skin Conditioning, Solvent
1 / 0
59
Emulsifying
Not safe for Fungal Acne Icon
60
Skin Conditioning
61
Antioxidant, Skin Conditioning
0 / 0
Vitamin E IconAntioxidant IconHelps brighten skin Icon
62
Skin Conditioning
63
Antioxidant
Antioxidant Icon
64
Emollient, Emulsifying, Skin Conditioning
65
Humectant, Skin Conditioning
0 / 0
Hyaluronic Acid Icon
66
Emulsifying
0 / 0
Not safe for Fungal Acne Icon
67
Masking
68
Skin Conditioning
Peptide IconNot safe for Fungal Acne Icon
69
Abrasive, Absorbent
Exfoliant IconMay worsen Eczema IconMay worsen Rosacea Icon
70
Antioxidant, Masking, Skin Conditioning
0-3 / 0-3
Vitamin E IconAntioxidant IconHelps hydrate Dry Skin IconMay cause irritation IconHelps with Anti-Aging IconGood for Scar Healing IconHelps brighten skin Icon
71
Skin Conditioning, Solvent
72
73
74
Skin Conditioning
Peptide IconHelps with Anti-Aging Icon
75
Humectant, Skin Conditioning
Hyaluronic Acid Icon
76
Humectant
Hyaluronic Acid Icon
77
Humectant, Skin Conditioning
Hyaluronic Acid Icon
78
Skin Conditioning, Skin Protecting
Peptide Icon
79
Skin Conditioning
Peptide IconNot safe for Fungal Acne Icon
80
Skin Conditioning
Peptide Icon
81
Skin Conditioning
Peptide Icon
82
Skin Conditioning
Peptide IconNot safe for Fungal Acne Icon
83
Skin Conditioning
Peptide IconNot safe for Fungal Acne Icon
84
Skin Conditioning
Peptide Icon
85
Skin Conditioning
Peptide Icon

Ingredients Explained

This product contains 85 ingredients. Click on any ingredient to learn more about it
1
What it does: Skin Conditioning, Solvent
Community Rating: Loved

Water. It's the most common cosmetic ingredient of all. You'll usually see it at the top of ingredient lists, meaning that it makes up the largest part of the product.

So why is it so popular? Water most often acts as a solvent - this means that it helps dissolve other ingredients into the formulation.

You'll also recognize water as that liquid we all need to stay alive. Talk about multi-purpose! If you see this, drink a glass of water. Stay hydrated!

Learn more about Water
2
What it does: Humectant, Skin Conditioning, Skin Protecting, Solvent
Community Rating: Loved

Glycerin is already naturally found in your skin. It helps moisturize and protect your skin.

A study from 2016 found glycerin to be more effective as a humectant than AHAs and hyaluronic acid.

As a humectant, it helps the skin stay hydrated by pulling moisture to your skin. The low molecular weight of glycerin allows it to pull moisture into the deeper layers of your skin.

Hydrated skin improves your skin barrier; Your skin barrier helps protect against irritants and bacteria.

Glycerin has also been found to have antimicrobial and antiviral properties. Due to these properties, glycerin is often used in wound and burn treatments.

In cosmetics, glycerin is usually derived from plants such as soybean or palm. However, it can also be sourced from animals, such as tallow or animal fat.

This ingredient is organic, colorless, odorless, and non-toxic.

Glycerin is the name for this ingredient in American English. British English uses Glycerol/Glycerine.

Learn more about Glycerin
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What it does: Masking, Skin Conditioning
Community Rating: Mixed

Caprylic/Capric Triglyceride is an emollient, solvent, and texture enhancer. It is considered a skin-softener by helping the skin prevent moisture loss.

Within a product, Caprylic Triglyceride can thicken the product and make spreadability easier by dissolving clumping compounds. An added benefit of Caprylic Triglyceride is its antioxidant properties.

Caprylic Triglyceride is made by combining glycerin with coconut oil, forming a clear liquid. Caprylic Triglyceride has not been found to be toxic for human use in concentrations under 50%.

While there is an assumption Caprylic Triglyceride can clog pores due to it being derived from coconut oil, there is no research supporting this.

Learn more about Caprylic/Capric Triglyceride
4
What it does: Emollient, Skin Conditioning
Community Rating: Liked

Dicaprylyl Carbonate comes from carbonic acid and caprylyl alcohol, a fatty alcohol. It is an emollient and gives skin a velvet feel. The sources of Dicaprylyl Carbonate may be synthetic or from animals.

As an emollient, Dicaprylyl Carbonate creates a film on the skin. This film traps moisture in, keeping your skin soft and hydrated.

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What it does: Emulsifying
Community Rating: Very Disliked

Polyglyceryl-3 Methylglucose Distearate is created from the diester of stearic acid and the condensation product of methylglucose and Polyglycerin-3.

As an emulsifier, it is used to bind ingredients together. Many ingredients, such as oils and water, separate naturally. Emulsifiers prevent them from separating to ensure even consistency in texture.

One of the manufacturer for this ingredient states it is vegetable-based. It is also claimed to be stable at both high and low temperatures.

This ingredient may not be safe for fungal acne. We recommend speaking with a professional if you have any concerns.

Learn more about Polyglyceryl-3 Methylglucose Distearate
6
What it does: Solvent
Community Rating: Liked

Propanediol helps absorb ingredients into your skin, boosting their benefits. It can act as an emollient, making your skin softer. Propanediol can help products last longer by boosting the properties of preservatives within the formulation.

Propanediol is not likely to cause sensitivity and considered safe to use.

It is derived from corn or petroleum with a clear color and no scent.

Learn more about Propanediol
7
What it does: Smoothing
Community Rating: Loved

Niacinamide has emerged as an all-star ingredient due to its many benefits.

It is known to treat acne by reducing inflammation. It also helps fade dark-spots and strengthen the skin by promoting the growth of the ceramide barrier.

Other benefits include smoothing wrinkles and minimizing redness.

The cherry on top? Niacinamide can also help build keratin, a protein that keeps skin firm.

When incorporating niacinamide into your routine, look out for concentration amounts. Typically, 5% niacinamide provides benefits such as fading dark spots. However, if you have sensitive skin, it is better to begin with a smaller concentration.

Niacinamide can be mixed with other ingredients to boost benefits. For instance, it has shown to be effective when used with copper, folic acid, and zinc to treat acne.

Learn more about Niacinamide
8
What it does: Skin Conditioning, Solvent
Community Rating: Mixed

1,2-Hexanediol is a multi-tasker ingredient. It acts as a preservative to increase shelf-life and can aid other preservatives in preventing microbe growth. 1,2-Hexanediol also helps the skin retain moisture as a humectant.

In products that are water-based, this ingredient can help stabilize perfumes and fragrances. It can also help make the texture of products softer and more smooth.

9
What it does: Emollient, Emulsifying, Emulsion Stabilising
Community Rating: Very Disliked

Cetearyl alcohol is a mixture of two fatty alcohols: cetyl alcohol and stearyl alcohol. It is mainly used as an emulsifier. Emulsifiers help prevent the separation of oils and products. Due to its composition, it can also be used to thicken a product or help create foam.

Cetearyl alcohol is an emollient. Emollients help soothe and hydrate the skin by trapping moisture.

Studies show Cetearyl alcohol is non-toxic and non-irritating. The FDA allows products labeled "alcohol-free" to have fatty alcohols.

This ingredient is usually derived from plant oils such as palm, vegetable, or coconut oils. There is debate on whether this ingredient will cause acne.

Due to the fatty acid base, this ingredient may not be Malassezia folliculitis safe.

Learn more about Cetearyl Alcohol
10
What it does: Emollient
Community Rating: Liked

Pentaerythrityl Tetraethylhexanoate is an emollient. Emollients help your skin stay soft and smooth by creating a thin film on top. This film helps trap moisture. It also helps improve the texture of products by adding thickness or helping to create a silky feel.

Pentaerythrityl Tetraethylhexanoate comes from isostearic acid, a saturated fatty acid. It is a synthetic ingredient.

11
What it does: Skin Conditioning

We don't have a description for Malva Sylvestris Flower Extract.

12
What it does: Emollient, Emulsifying
Community Rating: Disliked

Glyceryl Stearate is a mix of glycerin and stearic acid.

Glyceryl Stearate is used to stabilize the mixing of water and oil ingredients. By preventing these ingredients from separating, it can help elongate shelf life. It can also help thicken the product's texture.

As an emollient, it helps soften skin and supports barrier-replenishing ingredients.

In cosmetics, Glyceryl Stearate is often made from vegetable oils or synthetically produced. The human body also creates Glyceryl Stearate naturally.

Learn more about Glyceryl Stearate
13
What it does: Emollient, Emulsifying, Emulsion Stabilising, Masking
Community Rating: Very Disliked

Cetyl Alcohol is a fatty alcohol. Fatty Alcohols are most often used as an emollient or to thicken a product.

Cetyl Alcohol is not related to SD alcohol, denatured alcohol, or ethyl alcohol.
The FDA allows products labeled "alcohol-free" to have fatty alcohols.

14
What it does: Emollient, Emulsifying, Emulsion Stabilising, Masking
Community Rating: Very Disliked

Stearyl Alcohol is a type of fatty alcohol from stearic acid. It is a white, waxy compound used to emulsify ingredients.

Fatty Alcohols are most often used as an emollient or to thicken a product. Emollients help soothe and hydrate the skin by trapping moisture.

They are usually derived from natural fats and oils and therefore do not have the same drying or irritating effect as solvent alcohols. FDA allows products labeled "alcohol-free" to have fatty alcohols.

Learn more about Stearyl Alcohol
15
What it does: Emulsifying
Community Rating: Very Disliked

Sorbitan Stearate comes from sorbitol and stearic acid. Sorbitol is a type of sugar and stearic acid is a fatty acid.

It is used as an emulsifier and helps ingredients stay together by creating water-in-oil emulsions.

This ingredient may not be Malassezia folliculitis, or fungal-acne safe.

16
What it does: Skin Conditioning
Community Rating: Loved

Panthenol (also referred to as pro-vitamin B5) is a common ingredient that helps hydrate and soothe the skin.

lt is a humectant, meaning that it helps the skin attract and retain moisture.

Another benefit is the anti-inflammatory abilities. This means that it's great for sensitive, irritation-prone skin.

Once oxidized, panthenol converts to pantothenic acid. Panthothenic acid is found in all living cells.

Learn more about Panthenol
17
What it does: Emulsifying
Community Rating: Disliked

Cetearyl Glucoside is a surfactant and emulsifier. It can be produced from synthetic of natural sources of cetearyl alcohol and glucose.

Emulsifiers help prevent ingredients from separating, such as oils and waters. It can also be used to enhance the texture of products.

As a surfactant, Cetearyl Glucoside helps during the cleansing process. By gathering all the dirt and oils, it allows these molecules to be washed away easily.

Learn more about Cetearyl Glucoside
18
What it does: Emulsifying, Skin Conditioning
Community Rating: Liked

Hydrogenated Lecithin is created from the hydrogenation of lecithin. Hydrogenation is a chemical reaction between molecule hydrogen and another element.

Hydrogenated Lecithin is an emollient and emulsifier. As an emollient, it helps soften skin by trapping moisture within.

The phospholipids in Hydrogenated Lecithin can produce liposomes. Liposomes help other ingredients get through the skin barrier to be better absorbed.

As an emulsifier, it prevents oil and water ingredients from separating.

Learn more about Hydrogenated Lecithin
19
What it does: Emulsion Stabilising

Sodium Polyacryloyldimethyl Taurate is a polymer and used to help stabilize other ingredients.

Emulsion stabilizers hold ingredients together, helping to create an even texture throughout the product.

Sodium Polyacryloyldimethyl Taurate can also be used to thicken the texture.

Learn more about Sodium Polyacryloyldimethyl Taurate
20
What it does: Emulsion Stabilising, Gel Forming
Community Rating: Disliked

Carbomer is a polymer of acrylic acid. Its main role is to create gel consistency within products.

Carbomer is commonly found in many types of cosmetics products. It is found to be safe in concentrations up to 15%. However, a high amount of carbomer can cause pilling or balling up of products. Most products contain 1% of less of carbomer.

21
What it does: Buffering, Masking
Community Rating: Liked

Tromethamine is an aliphatic compound. An aliphatic compound is an organic compound with open-chained carbon atoms. It is synthetically created. Tromethamine is used to balance pH and improve texture.

As an emulsifier, Tromethamine prevents oil and water ingredients from separating. This helps stabilize the product and elongate a product's shelf life. Tromethamine also makes a product thicker.

Tromethamine helps balance the pH level of a product. Normal pH level of skin is slightly acidic (~4.75-5.5). The acidity of our skin is maintained by our glands and skin biome. Being slightly acidic allows our skin to create an "acid mantle". This acid mantle is a thin barrier that protects our skin from bacteria and contaminants.

Oral Tromethanmine is an anti-inflammatory drug but plays the role of masking, adding fragrance, and/or balancing pH in skincare.

1,3-Propanediol, 2-amino-2-(hydroxymethyl)-

Learn more about Tromethamine
22
What it does: Skin Conditioning
Community Rating: Mixed

Ethylhexylglycerin (we can't pronounce this either) is commonly used as a preservative and skin softener. It is derived from glyceryl.

You might see Ethylhexylglycerin often paired with other preservatives such as phenoxyethanol. Ethylhexylglycerin has been found to increase the effectiveness of these other preservatives.

23
What it does: Emulsifying, Emulsion Stabilising, Gel Forming, Skin Conditioning
Community Rating: Disliked

Xanthan gum is used as a stabilizer and thickener within cosmetic products. It helps give products a sticky, thick feeling - preventing them from being too runny.

On the technical side of things, xanthan gum is a polysaccharide - a combination consisting of multiple sugar molecules bonded together.

Xanthan gum is a pretty common and great ingredient. It is a natural, non-toxic, non-irritating ingredient that is also commonly used in food products.

Learn more about Xanthan Gum
24
What it does: Masking, Perfuming, Skin Conditioning
Community Rating: Mixed

This oil is the the volatile oil distilled from the dried flower heads of the Roman Chamomile flower.

Chamomile is rich in antioxidants and has anti-inflammatory properties. Several compounds found in chamomile help with soothing, such as bisbolol.

25
What it does: Emollient, Masking, Skin Conditioning, Solvent
Community Rating: Mixed

Hydrogenated Polydecene is an emollient. It creates a non-occlusive film on the skin that offers extra protection for your skin barrier.

The texture of Hydrogenated Polydecene ranges from light and silky to rich.

Hydrogenated Polydecene is the end compound of controlled hydrogenation of Polydecene.

Learn more about Hydrogenated Polydecene
26
What it does: Skin Conditioning, Skin Protecting, Soothing
Community Rating: Loved

Allantoin plays a role in soothing and moisturizing the skin. Because of this, it is often added to products with strong active ingredients.

Some studies have shown this ingredient can promote wound healing with higher concentrations.

Allantoin is derived from the comfrey plant but produced synthetically for cosmetic products to ensure purity.

Learn more about Allantoin
27
What it does: Masking, Perfuming, Tonic

Thuja Occidentalis Leaf Oil is a fragrance and is an oil.

28
What it does: Skin Conditioning
Community Rating: Loved

Adenosine is in every living organism. It is one of four components in nucleic acids that helps store our DNA.

Adenosine has many benefits when used. These benefits include hydrating the skin, smoothing skin, and reducing wrinkles. Once applied, adenosine increases collagen production. It also helps with improving firmness and tissue repair.

Studies have found adenosine may also help with wound healing.

In skincare products, Adenosine is usually derived from yeast.

Learn more about Adenosine
29
What it does: Skin Conditioning
Community Rating: Liked

We don't have a description for Lactococcus Ferment Lysate.

30
What it does: Antioxidant, Buffering, Masking, Skin Conditioning
Community Rating: Loved

Ascorbic Acid is is pure Vitamin C. This form makes up the largest amount of vitamin C found naturally in our skin.

Not only is vitamin C great for your overall health and immune system, it also has plenty of benefits on your skin.

Vitamin C is best used for brightening skin. It improves dark spots, acne scars, and hyperpigmentation. This is because it blocks the process of skin darkening when exposed to UV.

Remember: Vitamin C should not replace sunscreen!

Your skin uses vitamin C to build collagen. Collagen is one key component in having a strong skin barrier and plump skin. Vitamin C also plays a role in regulating collagen, thus making it effective in improving wrinkles and fine lines.

Ascorbic acid shows potent antioxidant activity. As an antioxidant, it helps fight free-radicals. Free-radicals are molecules that may damage your skin cells. These antioxidants also protect skin against UV damage.

The best formulations include Vitamin E and/or ferulic acid. These two ingredients help stabilize and provide a boost in the benefits of ascorbic acid. This is because ascorbic acid becomes unstable when exposed to UV and air. In fact, you can tell your ascorbic acid has oxidized when it turns an orange-yellow color.

Ascorbic acid is generally compatible with other ingredients. However, using ascorbic acid with other active ingredients might cause irritation. Two ingredients: copper ions and benzoyl peroxide, will inactivate ascorbic acid completely.

Read more about other types of Vitamin C:

Foods rich with vitamin C include oranges, strawberries, broccoli, bell peppers, and more. When consuming Vitamin C, your skin receives a portion of the nutrients.

Learn more about Ascorbic Acid
31
What it does: Refreshing, Skin Conditioning

We don't have a description for Citrus Aurantium Amara Flower Extract.

32
What it does: Cleansing

We don't have a description for Trideceth-10.

33
What it does: Humectant
Community Rating: Loved

Glucose is a simple sugar and is the most important source of energy in all organisms. In skincare, glucose is used to hydrate the skin. It also acts as a prebiotic for our natural biome.

As a humectant, glucose draws moisture from the air and from deeper levels in the skin. This helps hydrate skin.

Our skin's natural microbiome contains many saccharides that act as prebiotics. These prebiotics help strengthen our skin's microbiome. Having a healthy microbiome helps protect our skin from harmful bacteria and other contaminants.

Studies show glucose may help with fading discoloration and pigmentation. This is because our skin metabolizes glucose into lactic acid. Lactic acid is an AHA that helps exfoliate the top layer of skin.

Plants and algae make glucose during the process of photosynthesis. It is then used to make cellulose, the building blocks of cell walls.

Learn more about Glucose
34
What it does: Skin Conditioning
Community Rating: Liked

Collagen is the most abundant type of structural protein found in your body. In your skin, it is responsible for keeping it firm and youthful.

Collagen is comprised mostly of glycine, proline, and hydroxypoline. These are amino acids.

Collagen can be used in the morning or night. It will not increase sun sensitivity, but you should always wear sunscreen during the day.

Learn more about Collagen Extract
35
What it does: Emollient, Humectant, Skin Conditioning
Community Rating: Liked

Caprylyl Glycol is a humectant and emollient, meaning it attracts and preserves moisture.

It is a common ingredient in many products, especially those designed to hydrate skin. The primary benefits are retaining moisture, skin softening, and promoting a healthy skin barrier.

Though Caprylyl Glycol is an alcohol derived from fatty acids, it is not the kind that can dry out skin.

This ingredient is also used as a preservative to extend the life of products. It has slight antimicrobial properties.

Learn more about Caprylyl Glycol
36
What it does: Emollient
Community Rating: Mixed

Oenothera Biennis Oil is the fixed oil derived from the seeds of the Evening Primrose.

Evening primrose oil is rich in fatty acids. These fatty acids include linoleic (60-85%), oleic (5-12%), palmitic (4-10%), and stearic (2-4%).

The fatty acid composition makes it a great ingredient for soothing and moisturizing skin. However, it may not be Malassezia folliculitis, or fungal acne safe.

Further research is needed on the role of evening primrose in treating eczema.

Evening primrose is native to North America.

Learn more about Oenothera Biennis Oil
37
What it does: Skin Conditioning
Community Rating: Loved

Ceramide NP is a type of ceramide.

Ceramides are intercellular lipids naturally found in our skin that bonds dead skin cells together to create a barrier. They are known for their ability to hold water and thus are a great ingredient for dry skin.

Ceramides are an important building block for our skin barrier. A stronger barrier helps the skin look more firm and hydrated. By bolstering the skin ceramides act as a barrier against irritating ingredients. This can help with inflammation as well.

If you would like to eat ceramides, sweet potatoes contain a small amount.

Read more about other common types of ceramides here:
Ceramide AP
Ceramide EOP

Learn more about Ceramide NP
38
What it does: Perfuming, Skin Conditioning
Community Rating: Disliked

Linum Usitatissimum Seed Oil is the expressed oil from the dried ripe seed of the Linseed, Linum usitatissimum L., Linaceae

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What it does: Moisturising, Skin Conditioning
Community Rating: Mixed

Salvia Hispanica Seed Oil is an oil and isn't fungal acne safe.

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What it does: Emollient, Skin Conditioning
Community Rating: Loved

Squalane is an emollient that helps the skin hold onto moisture. It's an oily liquid that occurs naturally in certain types of fish and plant oils.

Because squalane boosts hydration in the skin, it also comes with plenty of benefits: it is an antioxidant and can help fight free radicals and skin damage. Squalane is also found to have a detoxifying effect when applied.

Squalane comes from squalene, which occurs naturally within the sebum of our skin. It is one of the oils our skin produces to keep itself hydrated. Squalane is the hydrogenated version of squalene and has a longer shelf life.

Research shows that squalane is non-irritating (even at 100% concentration).

In general, it's a fantastic ingredient. It does a great job at hydrating the skin, and it's suitable for those with sensitive skin.

The source of squalane may impact malassezia / fungal acne. This is because olive oil derived squalane can contain impurities such as fatty acids and plant waxes. Sugarcane derived squalane is recommended for anyone with malassezia concerns.

Is squalane vegan?
This depends on the source. Squalane can be derived from both plants and animals. Most squalane used in skincare comes from plants.

Please note: the source of squalane is only known if disclosed by the brand. We recommend reaching out to the brand if you have any questions about their squalane.

Read more about squalene with an "e".

Learn more about Squalane
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What it does: Skin Conditioning
Community Rating: Loved

Cyanocobalamin is the manufactured version of vitamin B12. Our bodies use B12 for cell production.

There is limited research on how Cyanocobalamin affects your skin.

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What it does: Humectant, Skin Conditioning
Community Rating: Loved

Acetyl Hexapeptide-8 is a peptide. A common name for this peptide is Argireline.

Argireline has a similar function to botox. It prevents muscle movement and contractions. By preventing muscles from moving, Argireline also prohibits the formation of fine lines and wrinkles. However, research is lacking in proving this ingredient to be as effective as botox.

Argireline tells our body to create more collagen. Collagen is a protein that makes connective tissue. Boosting collagen production leads to a healthier skin barrier. Having a healthy skin barrier means having firm and hydrated skin.

Read more about other common types of peptides here:

Learn more about Acetyl Hexapeptide-8
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What it does: Cosmetic Colorant, Skin Conditioning

Riboflavin is Vitamin B2. Our bodies use riboflavin in the creation of skin, digestive tract lining, and blood cells.

Riboflavin is naturally found in Royal Jelly.

Foods rich in riboflavin include eggs, milk, organ meat, cheese, and yogurt.

Learn more about other types of Vitamin B:

Learn more about Riboflavin
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What it does: Masking, Skin Conditioning

Thiamine Hcl is Vitamin B1. The HCL stands for hydrochloride. Thiamine HCL is created using thiamine chloride and hydrochloric acid.

Our bodies use Thiamine HCL for aerobic metabolism, cell growth, and transmission of nerve impulses.

Learn more about Vitamin B in skincare:

Learn more about Thiamine Hcl
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What it does: Antiseborrhoeic, Skin Conditioning
Community Rating: Liked

Biotin is a B vitamin that is naturally produced by our bodies. It is also called Vitamin H.

Our bodies use biotin in the metabolism process. It also helps our bodies use enzymes and move nutrients around. A biotin deficiency can lead to brittle hair and nails.

More research is needed on applying biotin topically. However, taking biotin orally has been shown to help nourish the skin, hair, and nails. They play a role in forming skin-hydrating fatty acids.

Biotin is water-soluble. It can be found in foods such as fish, eggs, dairy, nuts, and meat. Vitamin H stands for "haar" and "haut". These are the German words for hair and skin.

We recommend speaking with a professional if you have any questions or concerns about this ingredient.

Learn more about Biotin
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What it does: Emollient, Masking, Skin Conditioning
Community Rating: Disliked

Helianthus Annuus Seed Oil is the oil derived from the seeds of a Sunflower. Sunflower seed oil is non-fragrant. It is an emollient, meaning it helps to soften the skin.

Sunflower seed oil contains many fatty acids. The fatty acids found in sunflower seeds include (from highest amount to least): linoleic acid, myristic acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid, arachidic acid, oleic acid, and linolenic acid.

These fatty acids help the skin create ceramides. Ceramides play a role in repairing the skin barrier.

Helianthus Annuus Seed Oil helps moisturize the skin. This in turn helps the skin look more rejuvenated and smoother.

Sunflowers are rich in vitamin E.

Historians believe Indigenous cultures of North America domesticated sunflowers before corn. Thus they relied on sunflower oil for a variety of uses. One such use is moisturizing skin and hair.

Sunflower seed oil may not be fungal acne safe. We recommend speaking with a professional if you have any concerns.

Learn more about Helianthus Annuus Seed Oil
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What it does: Masking, Perfuming, Skin Conditioning
Community Rating: Very Disliked

Olea Europaea Fruit Oil is the fixed oil obtained from the ripe fruit of the Olive. In other words - olive oil.

The primary contents of olive oil are glycerides of the fatty acids linoleic, oleic and palmitic.

Olive oil also contains antioxidants such as Vitamin E. Antioxidants may help reduce signs of aging by fighting unstable free-radical molecules. It also contains Vitamins A (retinol), D, and K.

The squalene in olive oil makes it a great emollient. Emollients help soothe and soften your skin by trapping moisture in. This makes olive oil a great skin moisturizer.

Studies show olive oil to have antibacterial and antifungal properties in low concentrations. Another study found olive oil irritated sensitive oily skin. We always recommend speaking with a professional about using this ingredient in your routine.

Learn more about Olea Europaea Fruit Oil
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What it does: Absorbent, Emulsion Stabilising, Skin Conditioning
Community Rating: Liked

Maltodextrin is a polysaccharide. It is derived from starch such as rice, corn, wheat, or potato starch.

In food, Maltodextrin is used to improve the texture and thicken a product. Due to its structure, it can help create a gel texture. As an emulsion stabilizer, it helps keep the ingredients in a product together.

As a polysaccharide, Maltodextrin has moisturizing properties. Polysaccharides are a type of carbohydrate. The top layer of skin uses polysaccharides to retain water, keeping the skin hydrated.

Maltodextrin is water soluble and has a sweet taste.

Learn more about Maltodextrin
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What it does: Emollient, Moisturising, Skin Conditioning, Smoothing, Soothing

Persea Gratissima Fruit Extract comes from the avocado.

Avocados are rich in fatty acids. About 67% of these fatty acids is made up of oleic acid. Palmitic acid and linoleic acid are also present.

Besides fatty acids, avocados also have B vitamins, vitamin K, vitamin C, vitamin E, and potassium.

Learn more about Persea Gratissima Fruit Extract
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What it does: Humectant, Skin Conditioning
Community Rating: Liked

We don't have a description for Xylitylglucoside.

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What it does: Emollient
Community Rating: Mixed

Cetyl Ethylhexanoate comes from cetearyl alcohol and 2-ethylhexanoic acid.

It is an emollient that adds a velvety feel to products when applied. Emollients help trap moisture into your skin, keeping your skin soft and hydrated.

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What it does: Humectant, Skin Conditioning
Community Rating: Loved

We don't have a description for Anhydroxylitol.

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What it does: Absorbent, Emulsion Stabilising

We don't have a description for Sodium Starch Octenylsuccinate.

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Calcium Pantothenate is calcium salt from Vitamin B5. It can be naturally found in plants and animals.

Calcium Pantothenate is a potent antioxidant. Antioxidants help fight free-radical molecules. Free-radical molecules are capable of damaging our cells and other genetic material. Antioxidants help stabilize free-radicals by donating extra electrons. This may help reduce the signs of aging.

Our bodies use Calcium Pantothenate for various metabolic functinos. These functions include metabolizing carbohydrates, proteins, and fatty acids.

Learn more about Calcium Pantothenate
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What it does: Humectant, Skin Conditioning
Community Rating: Liked

Xylitol is a humectant and prebiotic. It can help with dry skin.

In studies, xylitol has been shown to improve dry skin. It decreased transepidermal water loss, or when water passes through the skin and evaporates. Xylitol also showed to help improve the biomechanical properties of the skin barrier.

The prebiotic property of xylitol may also help reinforce our skin's natural microbiome. Having a healthy microbiome prevents infection by bad bacteria and helps with hydration.

As a humectant, Xylitol helps draw moisture from both the air and from deeper skin layers. This helps keep skin hydrated.

Xylitol is a sugar alcohol and commonly used as a sugar substitute. It is naturally occurring in plants such as strawberries and pumpkin.

Learn more about Xylitol
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What it does: Skin Conditioning
Community Rating: Liked

We don't have a description for Lactobacillus Ferment Lysate.

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What it does: Antioxidant
Community Rating: Liked

Sodium Ascorbyl Phosphate is a form of Vitamin C. It is the salt of ascorbic acid.

This ingredient is more gentle than ascorbic acid. It is also more stable when exposed to light and oxygen.

Vitamin C helps reduce redness, improve skin texture, reduce the effects of aging, reduce the visibility of dark spots, and brighten skin.

Your skin uses Vitamin C to produce collagen and collagen production plays a role in having a strong skin barrier and plump skin. As an antioxidant, this ingredient also helps reduce the signs of aging such as fine-lines and wrinkles.

VItamin C helps brighten skin by blocking the process of skin darkening.

In a 2011 study, Sodium Ascorbyl Phosphate was found to have antibacterial properties. This may help treat acne.

Read more about other types of Vitamin C:

Learn more about Sodium Ascorbyl Phosphate
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What it does: Humectant, Masking, Skin Conditioning, Solvent
Community Rating: Mixed

Butylene Glycol (or BG) is used within cosmetic products for a few different reasons:

  • It is a solvent, meaning that it helps to dissolve other ingredients. This also enhances the absorption of the product into one's skin.
  • It is a humectant, which means that it helps attract moisture into the skin.
  • It helps improve product application.

Overall, Butylene Glycol is a safe and well-rounded ingredient. It is unlikely to irritate skin, and works well with pretty much all other ingredients.

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What it does: Emulsifying

Polyglyceryl-10 Diisostearate isn't fungal acne safe.

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What it does: Skin Conditioning

We don't have a description for Lupinus Albus Seed Extract.

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What it does: Antioxidant, Skin Conditioning
Community Rating: Liked

Tocopheryl Acetate is AKA Vitamin E. It is an antioxidant and protects your skin from free radicals. Free radicals damage the skin by breaking down collagen.

One study found using Tocopheryl Acetate with Vitamin C decreased the number of sunburned cells.

Tocopheryl Acetate is commonly found in both skincare and dietary supplements.

Learn more about Tocopheryl Acetate
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What it does: Skin Conditioning

We don't have a description for Pyridoxine Hcl.

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What it does: Antioxidant
Community Rating: Loved

Hydroxydecyl Ubiquinone is an antioxidant.

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What it does: Emollient, Emulsifying, Skin Conditioning
Community Rating: Disliked

Lecithin is a term for a group of substances found in plants, animals, and humans. They are made up of mixture of fatty acids. These fatty acids usually are a mixture of phosphoric acid's choline ester connected to stearic, oleic, and palmitic acids. Most lecithins are created from plant ingredients scuh as sunflower.

Lecithin is an emollient. Emollients help soften the skin and creates a barrier to keep moisture in.

As an emulsifier, it also helps prevent water and oil ingredients from separating. Lecithin can help ingredients be better absorbed by the skin. The phospholipids in Lecithin can produce liposomes. Liposomes help other ingredients get through the skin barrier.

Learn more about Lecithin
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What it does: Humectant, Skin Conditioning
Community Rating: Liked

Sodium Hyaluronate is hyaluronic acid's salt form. It is commonly derived from the sodium salt of hyaluronic acid.

Like hyaluronic acid, it is great at holding water and acts as a humectant. This makes it a great skin hydrating ingredient.

Sodium Hyaluronate is naturally occurring in our bodies and is mostly found in eye fluid and joints.

These are some other common types of Hyaluronic Acid:

Learn more about Sodium Hyaluronate
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What it does: Emulsifying
Community Rating: Very Disliked

Polysorbate 20 is made by combining ethoxylation of sorbitan, ethylene oxide, and lauric acid. It is a mild cleansing agent, surfactant, and emulsifier.

As a surfactant, it helps collect dirt and oils for washing. Emulsifiers prevent oils and water from separating.

Polysorbate 20 also adds scent to a product. Since it is made using sorbitol, it has a sweet scent. Sorbitol can also be found in fruits such as apples and peaches.

The lauric acid used to create Polysorbate 20 is often derived from coconuts.

Polysorbate 20 may not be fungal acne safe.

Learn more about Polysorbate 20
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What it does: Masking

We don't have a description for Menadione.

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What it does: Skin Conditioning
Community Rating: Liked

Palmitoyl Tripeptide-5 isn't fungal acne safe and is a peptide.

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What it does: Abrasive, Absorbent
Community Rating: Disliked

Silica is a mineral naturally found in our skin. It helps to thicken and smooth the texture of a product. It also acts as an agent for other ingredients by increasing the absorption of other ingredients into the skin.

Silica is often used for absorption and can help reduce shine when products are applied. Silica occurs in naturally in materials like clay and sandstone, and it can also be produced synthetically.

Silica is present naturally within the skin during collagen production and when reducing inflammation.

Learn more about Silica
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What it does: Antioxidant, Masking, Skin Conditioning
Community Rating: Liked

Tocopherol (also known as Vitamin E) is a common antioxidant used to help protect the skin from free-radicals and strengthen the skin barrier. It's also fat soluble - this means our skin is great at absorbing it.

Vitamin E also helps keep your natural skin lipids healthy. Your lipid skin barrier naturally consists of lipids, ceramides, and fatty acids. Vitamin E offers extra protection for your skin’s lipid barrier, keeping your skin healthy and nourished.

Another benefit is a bit of UV protection. Vitamin E helps reduce the damage caused by UVB rays. (It should not replace your sunscreen). Combining it with Vitamin C can decrease sunburned cells and hyperpigmentation after UV exposure.

You might have noticed Vitamin E + C often paired together. This is because it is great at stabilizing Vitamin C. Using the two together helps increase the effectiveness of both ingredients.

There are often claims that Vitamin E can reduce/prevent scarring, but these claims haven't been confirmed by scientific research.

Learn more about Tocopherol
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What it does: Skin Conditioning, Solvent
Community Rating: Mixed

Pentylene glycol is typically used within a product to thicken it. It also adds a smooth, soft, and moisturizing feel to the product. It is naturally found in plants such as sugar beets.

The hydrophilic trait of Pentylene Glycol makes it a humectant. As a humectant, Pentylene Glycol helps draw moisture from the air to your skin. This can help keep your skin hydrated.

This property also makes Pentylene Glycol a great texture enhancer. It can help thicken or emulsify a product. Emulsifiers help stabilize a product. It does this by preventing certain ingredients from separating.

Pentylene Glycol also acts as a mild preservative and helps to keep a product microbe-free.

Some people may experience mild eye and skin irritation from Pentylene Glycol. We always recommend speaking with a professional about using this ingredient in your routine.

Pentylene Glycol has a low molecular weight and is part of the 1,2-glycol family.

Learn more about Pentylene Glycol
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What it does:
Community Rating: Liked

We don't have a description for Hydroxypropyltrimonium Hyaluronate.

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What it does:
Community Rating: Disliked

Disodium EDTA plays a role in making products more stable by aiding other preservatives.

It is a chelating agent, meaning it neutralizes metal ions that may be found in a product.

Disodium EDTA is a salt of edetic acid and is found to be safe in cosmetic ingredients.

Learn more about Disodium EDTA
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What it does: Skin Conditioning
Community Rating: Loved

Copper Tripeptide-1 is a peptide naturally found in body fluids. Peptides are building blocks for protein.

Copper Tripeptide-1 tells our body to create more collagen. Collagen is a protein that makes connective tissue. Boosting collagen production leads to a healthier skin barrier. Having a healthy skin barrier means having firm and hydrated skin.

By breaking down damaged collagen, it also helps with removing scar tissue. It may also help with reducing sunspots, acne scars, and uneven skin tone.

This ingredient is also an antioxidant. Antioxidants help the body fight off free-radicals. Free radicals are molecules that damage our cells, such as pollution and tobacco smoke.

Studies find Copper Tripeptide-1 helps maintain tissues in blood vessels.

Read more about other common types of peptides here:

Learn more about Copper Tripeptide-1
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What it does: Humectant, Skin Conditioning
Community Rating: Liked

Hydrolyzed Hyaluronic Acid is a form of hyaluronic acid. It is created by the hydrolysis of hyaluronic acid with a high molecular weight. Once created, Hydrolyzed Hyaluronic Acid has a low molecular weight.

Low molecular weight HA has been shown to hydrate and increase elasticity of the skin. Increasing elasticity is also associated with reduction of wrinkle depth.

One study found topical low molecular weight hyaluronic acid may be considered for the treatment of rosacea in the adult population. However, we always recommend speaking with a professional about your skin concerns.

Hyaluronic acids are a humectant. This means they draw moisture from the air. Hyaluronic acids help moisturize, soothe, and protect the skin.

Read more about other common forms of hyaluronic acid:

Learn more about Hydrolyzed Hyaluronic Acid
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What it does: Humectant
Community Rating: Liked

Sodium Acetylated Hyaluronate is a type of Hyaluronic Acid.

Hyaluronic Acids help moisturize, soothe, and protect the skin.

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What it does: Humectant, Skin Conditioning
Community Rating: Liked

Sodium Hyaluronate Crosspolymer is a type of hyaluronic acid. In fact, it is modified version of hyaluronic acid.

The structure of Sodium Hyaluronate Crosspolymer allows it to stay in the skin's top layer for a longer period of time. This allows for even more hydration and humectant action than hyaluronic acid.

These are some other common types of Hyaluronic Acid:

Learn more about Sodium Hyaluronate Crosspolymer
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What it does: Skin Conditioning, Skin Protecting
Community Rating: Loved

Tripeptide-1 is a peptide.

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What it does: Skin Conditioning
Community Rating: Liked

Palmitoyl Tripeptide-1 is a 3-amino acid peptide. Peptides are building blocks for protein.

Palmitoyl Tripeptide-1 is a signal peptide. This means it tells our skin to create collagen. Collagen is a protein that makes connective tissue. Boosting collagen production leads to a healthier skin barrier. Having a healthy skin barrier means having firm and hydrated skin.

Palmitoyl Tripeptide-1 can help reduce wrinkles and make the skin look more youthful.

Read more about other common types of peptides here:

Learn more about Palmitoyl Tripeptide-1
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What it does: Skin Conditioning
Community Rating: Loved

Tripeptide-2 is a peptide.

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What it does: Skin Conditioning
Community Rating: Loved

Hexapeptide-11 is a peptide.

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What it does: Skin Conditioning
Community Rating: Loved

Palmitoyl Tetrapeptide-7 is a peptide. Peptides are building blocks for protein.

This ingredient consists of four amino acids and palmitic acid. These amino acids are arginine, proline, glutamine, and glycine.

This ingredient has many benefits. These benefits include boosting collagen production, fighting inflammation, and reversing UV damage.

By preventing our bodies from producing interleukins, Palmitoyl Tetrapeptide-7 helps fight inflammation. An interleukin is a chemical that signals to the body to produce an inflammatory response. Interleukin production is accelerated by UV radiation.

Palmitoyl Tetrapeptide-7 tells our body to create more collagen. Collagen is a protein that makes connective tissue. Boosting collagen production leads to a healthier skin barrier. Having a healthy skin barrier means having firm and hydrated skin.

Read more about other common types of peptides here:

Learn more about Palmitoyl Tetrapeptide-7
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What it does: Skin Conditioning
Community Rating: Loved

You might know this ingredients as Matrixyl. It is a peptide.

Peptides are building blocks for protein. Palmitoyl Pentapeptide-4 consists of five amino acids. These amino acids include: 2 lysines, 2 threonines, and serine

This ingredients tells our body to create more collagen. Collagen is a protein that makes connective tissue. Boosting collagen production leads to a healthier skin barrier. Having a healthy skin barrier means having firm and hydrated skin.

Thus, Matrixyl may help improve the look of wrinkles.

Read more about other common types of peptides here:

Learn more about Palmitoyl Pentapeptide-4
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What it does: Skin Conditioning
Community Rating: Loved

Hexapeptide-9 is a peptide.

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What it does: Skin Conditioning
Community Rating: Loved

Nonapeptide-1 is created from amino acids including arginine and lysine.

Nonapeptide-1 has antioxidant and antimicrobial properties.

Emerging studies show Nonapeptide-1 to help with reducing pigmentation and brightening the skin. It has shown to prevent the activation of tyrosinase, an enzyme in the skin that begins the process of melanin creation. Melanin is responsible for giving skin a tan or dark spots.

Learn more about Nonapeptide-1
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12% have mixed ratings
19% are disliked or very disliked
16% have no rating yet

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