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D'Alba White Truffle First Aromatic Spray Serum Ingredients Explained

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Updated March 12, 2024 Added by taylorh2654

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Overview

What it is

Serum with 68 ingredients that contains exfoliants, hyaluronic acid, niacinamide and Vitamin E

Cool Features

It is vegan and reef safe

Suited For

It has ingredients that are good for fighting acne, anti aging, dry skin, brightening skin, sensitive skin, oily skin, reducing pores, scar healing and dark spots

Free From

It doesn't contain any harsh alcohols, parabens, silicones or sulfates

Fun facts

D'Alba is from South Korea. This product is used in 9 routines created by our community.

We independently verify ingredients and our claims are backed by peer-reviewed research. Does this product need an update? Let us know.

Serum with 68 ingredients that contains exfoliants, hyaluronic acid, niacinamide and Vitamin E

Quick info

You should know

Notable Ingredients

Benefits

Concerns

Ingredients 68

Rosa Damascena Flower Water Masking, Skin Conditioning, Skin Protecting

Rosa Damascena Flower Water comes from the Damask rose. It is a dilluted version of the Rose Essential oil.

Dipropylene Glycol Masking, Solvent

Dipropylene Glycol is a synthetically created stabilizer and solvent. It is a part of the glycol class in the alcohol family.

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Neopentyl Glycol Diheptanoate Emollient, Skin Conditioning

We don't have a description for Neopentyl Glycol Diheptanoate.

Water Skin Conditioning, Solvent

Water. It's the most common cosmetic ingredient of all. You'll usually see it at the top of ingredient lists, meaning that it makes up the largest part of the product.

Glycereth-26 Humectant
0 / 0

Glycereth-26 is a synthetic ingredient and polyethylene glycol ether of Glycerin. Glycerin is already naturally found in your skin and helps keep your skin moisturized.

0 Com. / 0 Irr.
1,2-Hexanediol Skin Conditioning, Solvent

1,2-Hexanediol is a multi-tasker ingredient. It acts as a preservative to increase shelf-life and can aid other preservatives in preventing microbe growth. 1,2-Hexanediol also helps the skin retain moisture as a humectant.

Niacinamide Smoothing
Niacinamide IconGood for Oily Skin IconHelps reduce Skin Redness IconGood for Minimizing Pores IconGood for Dark Spots IconHelps fight Acne IconHelps brighten skin Icon
NiacinamideNiacinamide Icon 6 Benefits

Niacinamide has emerged as an all-star ingredient due to its many benefits.

Tuber Magnatum Extract Skin Conditioning

We don't have a description for Tuber Magnatum Extract.

Unknown Full details ->
Tocopherol Antioxidant, Masking, Skin Conditioning
0-3 / 0-3 Vitamin E IconAntioxidant IconHelps hydrate Dry Skin IconHelps with Anti-Aging IconGood for Scar Healing IconHelps brighten skin IconMay cause irritation Icon
Vitamin EVitamin E Icon AntioxidantAntioxidant Icon 4 Benefits May cause irritationMay cause irritation Icon

Tocopherol (also known as Vitamin E) is a common antioxidant used to help protect the skin from free-radicals and strengthen the skin barrier. It's also fat soluble - this means our skin is great at absorbing it.

0-3 Com. / 0-3 Irr.
Hydroxyethyl Urea Humectant, Skin Conditioning

We don't have a description for Hydroxyethyl Urea.

Butylene Glycol Humectant, Masking, Skin Conditioning
1 / 0

Butylene Glycol (or BG) is used within cosmetic products for a few different reasons:

1 Com. / 0 Irr.
Persea Gratissima Oil Skin Conditioning
0-3 / 0 Oil IconHelps hydrate Dry Skin IconNot safe for Fungal Acne Icon
OilOil Icon Helps hydrate Dry SkinHelps hydrate Dry Skin Icon Not safe for Fungal AcneNot safe for Fungal Acne Icon

Persea Gratissima Oil is made by pressing dehydrated avocado fruit from the tree Persea gratissima, Lauraceae.

0-3 Com. / 0 Irr.
Disliked Full details ->
Betaine Humectant, Skin Conditioning
Helps hydrate Dry Skin IconHelps reduce Skin Redness IconHelps reduce irritation Icon
3 Benefits

Betaine is a common humectant (a substance that promotes retention of moisture). It's known to be gentle on the skin and can help balance hydration.

Glycerin Humectant, Skin Conditioning, Skin Protecting
0 / 0 Helps hydrate Dry Skin IconHelps brighten skin Icon
2 Benefits

Glycerin is already naturally found in your skin. It helps moisturize and protect your skin.

0 Com. / 0 Irr.
Panthenol Skin Conditioning
0 / 0 Helps reduce irritation Icon
Helps reduce irritationHelps reduce irritation Icon

Panthenol is a common ingredient that helps hydrate and soothe the skin. It can be found naturally in our skin and hair.

0 Com. / 0 Irr.
Helianthus Annuus Seed Oil Emollient, Masking, Skin Conditioning
0 / 0 Oil IconHelps hydrate Dry Skin IconMay worsen Oily Skin IconNot safe for Fungal Acne Icon
OilOil Icon Helps hydrate Dry SkinHelps hydrate Dry Skin Icon 2 Concerns

Helianthus Annuus Seed Oil is the oil derived from the seeds of a Sunflower. Sunflower seed oil is non-fragrant. It is an emollient, meaning it helps to soften the skin.

0 Com. / 0 Irr.
Disliked Full details ->
Sorbitol Humectant, Masking, Skin Conditioning
0 / 0 Helps hydrate Dry Skin Icon
Helps hydrate Dry SkinHelps hydrate Dry Skin Icon

Sorbitol is a sugar alcohol. It is a hydrating and moisturizing agent created from the reduction process of glucose.

0 Com. / 0 Irr.
Dipotassium Glycyrrhizate Humectant, Skin Conditioning
Helps reduce Skin Redness IconHelps reduce irritation IconGood for Dark Spots Icon
3 Benefits

Dipotassium Glycyrrhizate comes from licorice root.

Disodium EDTA

Disodium EDTA plays a role in making products more stable by aiding other preservatives.

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Tocopheryl Acetate Antioxidant, Skin Conditioning
0 / 0 Vitamin E IconAntioxidant IconHelps brighten skin Icon
Vitamin EVitamin E Icon AntioxidantAntioxidant Icon Helps brighten skinHelps brighten skin Icon

Tocopheryl Acetate is AKA Vitamin E. It is an antioxidant and protects your skin from free radicals. Free radicals damage the skin by breaking down collagen.

0 Com. / 0 Irr.
Adenosine Skin Conditioning
Helps with Anti-Aging IconGood for Scar Healing Icon
2 Benefits

Adenosine is in every living organism. It is one of four components in nucleic acids that helps store our DNA.

Bifida Ferment Lysate Skin Conditioning
Helps hydrate Dry Skin Icon
Helps hydrate Dry SkinHelps hydrate Dry Skin Icon

Bifida Ferment Lysate is derived from the fermentation of Bifida bacteria (often with dairy). It is a probiotic and helps to strengthen our skin's microbiome.

Camellia Japonica Seed Oil Emollient, Skin Conditioning
Oil IconNot safe for Fungal Acne Icon
OilOil Icon Not safe for Fungal AcneNot safe for Fungal Acne Icon

Camellia Japonica Seed Oil comes from the Japanese Camellia plant. This plant is native to East Asia and known as "Tsubaki" in Japanese.

Hibiscus Esculentus Fruit Extract Skin Conditioning

We don't have a description for Hibiscus Esculentus Fruit Extract.

Unknown Full details ->
Macadamia Ternifolia Seed Oil Emollient
Oil IconNot safe for Fungal Acne Icon
OilOil Icon Not safe for Fungal AcneNot safe for Fungal Acne Icon

Macadamia Ternifolia Seed Oil is the fixed oil obtained from Macadamia nut.

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Oenothera Biennis Oil Emollient
3 / 2 Oil IconHelps reduce irritation IconNot safe for Fungal Acne Icon
OilOil Icon Helps reduce irritationHelps reduce irritation Icon Not safe for Fungal AcneNot safe for Fungal Acne Icon

Oenothera Biennis Oil is the fixed oil derived from the seeds of the Evening Primrose.

3 Com. / 2 Irr.
Olea Europaea Fruit Oil Masking, Perfuming, Skin Conditioning
0-2 / 0 Fragrance IconOil IconNot safe for Fungal Acne Icon
FragranceFragrance Icon OilOil Icon Not safe for Fungal AcneNot safe for Fungal Acne Icon

Olea Europaea Fruit Oil is the fixed oil obtained from the ripe fruit of the Olive. In other words - olive oil.

0-2 Com. / 0 Irr.
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Glycine Soja Oil Emollient, Skin Conditioning
3 / 0 Oil IconNot safe for Fungal Acne Icon
OilOil Icon Not safe for Fungal AcneNot safe for Fungal Acne Icon

Glycine Soja Oil comes from the soybean. Glycine Soja is native to eastern Asia.

3 Com. / 0 Irr.
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Arginine Masking, Skin Conditioning
Not safe for Fungal Acne Icon
Not safe for Fungal AcneNot safe for Fungal Acne Icon

Arginine is an amino acid that is important for human development. Your body uses is it to produce hair keratin and skin collagen.

Bellis Perennis Flower Extract Skin Conditioning

Daisy extract has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.

Carbomer Emulsion Stabilising, Gel Forming
1 / 0

Carbomer is a polymer of acrylic acid. Its main role is to create gel consistency within products.

1 Com. / 0 Irr.
Disliked Full details ->
Freesia Refracta Extract Skin Conditioning

We don't have a description for Freesia Refracta Extract.

Unknown Full details ->
Houttuynia Cordata Extract Skin Conditioning
Helps reduce Skin Redness Icon
Helps reduce Skin RednessHelps reduce Skin Redness Icon

Houttuynia Cordata Extract is more commonly known as Heart Leaf, Fish Mint, or Chameleon plant.

Leontopodium Alpinum Extract Skin Conditioning

We don't have a description for Leontopodium Alpinum Extract.

Unknown Full details ->
Lilium Candidum Flower Extract Skin Conditioning

We don't have a description for Lilium Candidum Flower Extract.

Unknown Full details ->
Morus Alba Bark Extract Skin Conditioning

We don't have a description for Morus Alba Bark Extract.

Nelumbo Nucifera Flower Extract Skin Conditioning

Nelumbium Speciosum Flower Extract comes from the Lotus Flower, Nelumbiumspeciosum.

Ocimum Basilicum Flower/Leaf/Stem Extract Tonic

We don't have a description for Ocimum Basilicum Flower/Leaf/Stem Extract.

Unknown Full details ->
Panax Ginseng Root Extract Emollient, Skin Protecting, Tonic
Helps hydrate Dry Skin IconHelps reduce Skin Redness Icon
2 Benefits

Panax Ginseng Root is a popular herb from Asia. This root contains antioxidants, favonoids, and vitamins B12 and D.

Saussurea Involucrata Extract Humectant

We don't have a description for Saussurea Involucrata Extract.

Unknown Full details ->
Chamomilla Recutita Flower Extract Masking, Skin Conditioning
Helps reduce Skin Redness IconHelps reduce irritation Icon
2 Benefits

Chamomilla Recutita Flower Extract comes from the Chamomile flower.

Hibiscus Sabdariffa Flower Extract Skin Conditioning

This extract comes from the Roselle flower, or Hibiscus Sabdariffa. Roselle flowers are rich in antioxidants and have anti-aging benefits.

Lavandula Angustifolia Flower Extract Cleansing, Masking, Refreshing
EU Allergen Icon
EU AllergenEU Allergen Icon

Lavandula Angustifolia Flower Extract comes from the lavender plant. Lavender extract has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties.

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Melissa Officinalis Leaf Extract Skin Conditioning

We don't have a description for Melissa Officinalis Leaf Extract.

Unknown Full details ->
Mentha Piperita Leaf Extract Skin Conditioning

Mentha Piperita Leaf Extract is extract from peppermint leaves.

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Mentha Rotundifolia Leaf Extract Tonic

We don't have a description for Mentha Rotundifolia Leaf Extract.

Unknown Full details ->
Monarda Didyma Leaf Extract Skin Conditioning

We don't have a description for Monarda Didyma Leaf Extract.

Unknown Full details ->
Rosa Centifolia Flower Extract Astringent, Masking, Skin Conditioning

We don't have a description for Rosa Centifolia Flower Extract.

Unknown Full details ->
Rosmarinus Officinalis Leaf Extract Antimicrobial, Masking, Skin Conditioning

Rosmarinus Officinalis Leaf Extract comes from rosemary. Rosemary is native to the Mediterranean.

Salvia Officinalis Leaf Extract Cleansing, Skin Conditioning, Tonic

We don't have a description for Salvia Officinalis Leaf Extract.

Unknown Full details ->
Sparassis Crispa Extract Emulsion Stabilising, Humectant, Skin Conditioning

We don't have a description for Sparassis Crispa Extract.

Unknown Full details ->
Sodium Palmitoyl Proline Skin Conditioning

We don't have a description for Sodium Palmitoyl Proline.

Unknown Full details ->
Potassium Sorbate Preservative
Preservative Icon
PreservativePreservative Icon

Potassium Sorbate is a preservative used to prevent yeast and mold in products. It is commonly found in both cosmetic and food products.

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Avena Sativa Kernel Extract Abrasive, Antioxidant, Emollient
Exfoliant IconAntioxidant IconHelps hydrate Dry Skin Icon
ExfoliantExfoliant Icon AntioxidantAntioxidant Icon Helps hydrate Dry SkinHelps hydrate Dry Skin Icon

Avena Sativa Kernel Extract is is derived from colloidal oatmeal. Besides being a healthy breakfast, oats have many benefits in skincare too.

Hippophae Rhamnoides Fruit Oil Skin Protecting
Oil IconHelps reduce irritation IconNot safe for Fungal Acne Icon
OilOil Icon Helps reduce irritationHelps reduce irritation Icon Not safe for Fungal AcneNot safe for Fungal Acne Icon

Hippophae Rhamnoides Fruit Oil comes from the seabuckthorn berry. The seabuckthorn fruit contains carotenoids, palmitic acid, palmitoleic acid and vitamin E.

Hydrolyzed Hyaluronic Acid Humectant, Skin Conditioning
Hyaluronic Acid Icon
Hyaluronic AcidHyaluronic Acid Icon

Hydrolyzed Hyaluronic Acid is a form of hyaluronic acid. It is created by the hydrolysis of hyaluronic acid with a high molecular weight. Once created, Hydrolyzed Hyaluronic Acid has a low molecular weight.

Salvia Hispanica Seed Extract Emollient, Skin Conditioning

We don't have a description for Salvia Hispanica Seed Extract.

Unknown Full details ->
Centella Asiatica Extract Cleansing, Skin Conditioning, Smoothing
Helps reduce Skin Redness IconHelps reduce irritation Icon
2 Benefits

Centella Asiatica Extract (Centella) is derived from an herb native to Southeast Asia. It is famous for its anti-inflammatory and soothing properties.

Hamamelis Virginiana Extract Antiseborrhoeic, Astringent, Skin Conditioning
Can worsen Dry Skin Icon
Can worsen Dry SkinCan worsen Dry Skin Icon

Hamamelis Virginiana Extract comes from the witch hazel plant.

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Portulaca Oleracea Extract Skin Conditioning

Portulaca Oleracea Extract is an extract of the whole plant of the Purslane, Portulaca oleracea L., Portulacaceae. It has anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and hydrating properties.

Scutellaria Baicalensis Root Extract Astringent, Humectant, Soothing
Good for Scar Healing Icon
Good for Scar HealingGood for Scar Healing Icon

Scutellaria Baicalensis Root Extract comes from the Baikal skullcap or Chinese skullcap plant. This plant is native to Northeast Asia and can be found in China, Mongolia, Korea, and Siberia.

Bixa Orellana Seed Oil Emollient, Humectant, Skin Conditioning
Oil IconNot safe for Fungal Acne Icon
OilOil Icon Not safe for Fungal AcneNot safe for Fungal Acne Icon

Bixa Orellana Seed Oil is an oil and isn't fungal acne safe.

Unknown Full details ->
Nymphaea Alba Flower Extract Skin Conditioning, Tonic

We don't have a description for Nymphaea Alba Flower Extract.

Unknown Full details ->
Parfum Masking, Perfuming
Fragrance IconMay worsen Eczema IconMay worsen Rosacea Icon
FragranceFragrance Icon 2 Concerns

Parfum is a catch-all term for an ingredient or more that is used to give a scent to products.

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Hexyl Cinnamal Perfuming
Fragrance IconEU Allergen Icon
FragranceFragrance Icon EU AllergenEU Allergen Icon

Hexyl Cinnamal is a fragrance ingredient with a similar scent to jasmine. It can be naturally found in chamomile essential oil.

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Limonene Perfuming, Solvent
Fragrance Icon
FragranceFragrance Icon

Limonene is a fragrance that adds scent and taste to a formulation.

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Linalool Perfuming
Fragrance IconMay cause irritation IconEU Allergen Icon
FragranceFragrance Icon 2 Concerns

Linalool is a fragrance and helps add scent to products. It's derived from common plants such as cinnamon, mint, citrus, and lavender.

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Citronellol Perfuming
Fragrance IconEU Allergen Icon
FragranceFragrance Icon EU AllergenEU Allergen Icon

Citronellol is used to add fragrance/parfum to a product. It is often derived from plants such as roses. In fact, it can be found in many essential oils including geranium, lavender, neroli, and more. The scent of Citronellol is often described as "fresh, grassy, and citrus-like".

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Rosa Damascena Flower Water, Dipropylene Glycol, Neopentyl Glycol Diheptanoate, Water, Glycereth-26, 1,2-Hexanediol, Niacinamide, Tuber Magnatum Extract, Tocopherol, Hydroxyethyl Urea, Butylene Glycol, Persea Gratissima Oil, Betaine, Glycerin, Panthenol, Helianthus Annuus Seed Oil, Sorbitol, Dipotassium Glycyrrhizate, Disodium EDTA, Tocopheryl Acetate, Adenosine, Bifida Ferment Lysate, Camellia Japonica Seed Oil, Hibiscus Esculentus Fruit Extract, Macadamia Ternifolia Seed Oil, Oenothera Biennis Oil, Olea Europaea Fruit Oil, Glycine Soja Oil, Arginine, Bellis Perennis Flower Extract, Carbomer, Freesia Refracta Extract, Houttuynia Cordata Extract, Leontopodium Alpinum Extract, Lilium Candidum Flower Extract, Morus Alba Bark Extract, Nelumbo Nucifera Flower Extract, Ocimum Basilicum Flower/Leaf/Stem Extract, Panax Ginseng Root Extract, Saussurea Involucrata Extract, Chamomilla Recutita Flower Extract, Hibiscus Sabdariffa Flower Extract, Lavandula Angustifolia Flower Extract, Melissa Officinalis Leaf Extract, Mentha Piperita Leaf Extract, Mentha Rotundifolia Leaf Extract, Monarda Didyma Leaf Extract, Rosa Centifolia Flower Extract, Rosmarinus Officinalis Leaf Extract, Salvia Officinalis Leaf Extract, Sparassis Crispa Extract, Sodium Palmitoyl Proline, Potassium Sorbate, Avena Sativa Kernel Extract, Hippophae Rhamnoides Fruit Oil, Hydrolyzed Hyaluronic Acid, Salvia Hispanica Seed Extract, Centella Asiatica Extract, Hamamelis Virginiana Extract, Portulaca Oleracea Extract, Scutellaria Baicalensis Root Extract, Bixa Orellana Seed Oil, Nymphaea Alba Flower Extract, Parfum, Hexyl Cinnamal, Limonene, Linalool, Citronellol

Ingredient Ratings

Based on the number of likes and dislikes each ingredient has received.

28
6
17
17
liked
mixed
disliked
not rated

Ingredients Explained

This product contains 68 ingredients. Click on any ingredient to learn more about it
Masking, Skin Conditioning, Skin Protecting
Liked

Rosa Damascena Flower Water comes from the Damask rose. It is a dilluted version of the Rose Essential oil.

The Damask Roses' petals have been found to help sooth skin. The petals also contain antioxidant compounds.

Antioxidants help fight free-radical molecules. Free-radical molecules are capable of damaging our cells and other genetic material. Antioxidants help stabilize free-radicals by donating extra electrons. This may help reduce the signs of aging.

The fragrance of Rosa Damascena Flower Water may be used for masking. Masking ingredients are used to obscure or block properties of other ingredients. They are commonly used to block the scent of a product.

Learn more about Rosa Damascena Flower Water
Masking, Solvent
Disliked

Dipropylene Glycol is a synthetically created stabilizer and solvent. It is a part of the glycol class in the alcohol family.

Dipropylene Glycol helps dissolve and evenly distribute ingredients. It also helps decrease viscosity and thin out texture.

As a masking agent, Dipropylene Glycol can be used to cover the smell of other ingredients. However, it does not have a scent.

Studies show Dipropylene Glycol is considered safe to use in skincare.

Learn more about Dipropylene Glycol
Emollient, Skin Conditioning
Liked

We don't have a description for Neopentyl Glycol Diheptanoate.

Skin Conditioning, Solvent
Loved

Water. It's the most common cosmetic ingredient of all. You'll usually see it at the top of ingredient lists, meaning that it makes up the largest part of the product.

So why is it so popular? Water most often acts as a solvent - this means that it helps dissolve other ingredients into the formulation.

You'll also recognize water as that liquid we all need to stay alive. If you see this, drink a glass of water. Stay hydrated!

Learn more about Water
Humectant
Liked

Glycereth-26 is a synthetic ingredient and polyethylene glycol ether of Glycerin. Glycerin is already naturally found in your skin and helps keep your skin moisturized.

It is a humectant and helps add texture to products. It can make your product thicker.

As a humectant, it helps draw moisture from the air to your skin. This helps your skin stay hydrated.

Learn more about Glycereth-26
Skin Conditioning, Solvent
Mixed

1,2-Hexanediol is a multi-tasker ingredient. It acts as a preservative to increase shelf-life and can aid other preservatives in preventing microbe growth. 1,2-Hexanediol also helps the skin retain moisture as a humectant.

In products that are water-based, this ingredient can help stabilize perfumes and fragrances. It can also help make the texture of products softer and more smooth.

Smoothing
Loved

Niacinamide has emerged as an all-star ingredient due to its many benefits.

It is known to treat acne by reducing inflammation. It also helps fade dark-spots and strengthen the skin by promoting the growth of the ceramide barrier.

Other benefits include smoothing wrinkles and minimizing redness.

The cherry on top? Niacinamide can also help build keratin, a protein that keeps skin firm.

When incorporating niacinamide into your routine, look out for concentration amounts. Typically, 5% niacinamide provides benefits such as fading dark spots. However, if you have sensitive skin, it is better to begin with a smaller concentration.

Niacinamide can be mixed with other ingredients to boost benefits. For instance, it has shown to be effective when used with copper, folic acid, and zinc to treat acne.

Learn more about Niacinamide
Skin Conditioning

We don't have a description for Tuber Magnatum Extract.

Antioxidant, Masking, Skin Conditioning
Liked

Tocopherol (also known as Vitamin E) is a common antioxidant used to help protect the skin from free-radicals and strengthen the skin barrier. It's also fat soluble - this means our skin is great at absorbing it.

Vitamin E also helps keep your natural skin lipids healthy. Your lipid skin barrier naturally consists of lipids, ceramides, and fatty acids. Vitamin E offers extra protection for your skin’s lipid barrier, keeping your skin healthy and nourished.

Another benefit is a bit of UV protection. Vitamin E helps reduce the damage caused by UVB rays. (It should not replace your sunscreen). Combining it with Vitamin C can decrease sunburned cells and hyperpigmentation after UV exposure.

You might have noticed Vitamin E + C often paired together. This is because it is great at stabilizing Vitamin C. Using the two together helps increase the effectiveness of both ingredients.

There are often claims that Vitamin E can reduce/prevent scarring, but these claims haven't been confirmed by scientific research.

Learn more about Tocopherol
Humectant, Skin Conditioning
Liked

We don't have a description for Hydroxyethyl Urea.

Humectant, Masking, Skin Conditioning
Mixed

Butylene Glycol (or BG) is used within cosmetic products for a few different reasons:

  • It is a solvent, meaning that it helps to dissolve other ingredients. This also enhances the absorption of the product into one's skin.
  • It is a humectant, which means that it helps attract moisture into the skin.
  • It helps improve product application.

Overall, Butylene Glycol is a safe and well-rounded ingredient. It is unlikely to irritate skin, and works well with pretty much all other ingredients.

Skin Conditioning
Disliked

Persea Gratissima Oil is made by pressing dehydrated avocado fruit from the tree Persea gratissima, Lauraceae.

Avocado Oil has antioxidant properties. Antioxidants help fight off free-radicals. Free-radicals are molecules that may damage your skin cells.

Avocado Oil is mostly made up of the glycerides of fatty acids. About 67% of these fatty acids is made up of oleic acid. Palmitic acid and linoleic acid are also present.

These fatty acids help hydrate and soften the skin. It may increase collagen content in the skin. Collagen helps keep your skin plump and firm.

Avocado Oil reduces inflammation and has not shown to clog glands.

Avocados also have B vitamins, vitamin K, vitamin C, vitamin E, and potassium.

Learn more about Persea Gratissima Oil
Humectant, Skin Conditioning
Loved

Betaine is a common humectant (a substance that promotes retention of moisture). It's known to be gentle on the skin and can help balance hydration.

Betaine is best for improving hydration and soothing irritated skin. Studies show betaine may help with uneven skin tones.

Betaine is naturally created in the skin and body. The form found within cosmetic products can be either plant-dervied or synthetic.

Learn more about Betaine
Humectant, Skin Conditioning, Skin Protecting
Loved

Glycerin is already naturally found in your skin. It helps moisturize and protect your skin.

A study from 2016 found glycerin to be more effective as a humectant than AHAs and hyaluronic acid.

As a humectant, it helps the skin stay hydrated by pulling moisture to your skin. The low molecular weight of glycerin allows it to pull moisture into the deeper layers of your skin.

Hydrated skin improves your skin barrier; Your skin barrier helps protect against irritants and bacteria.

Glycerin has also been found to have antimicrobial and antiviral properties. Due to these properties, glycerin is often used in wound and burn treatments.

In cosmetics, glycerin is usually derived from plants such as soybean or palm. However, it can also be sourced from animals, such as tallow or animal fat.

This ingredient is organic, colorless, odorless, and non-toxic.

Glycerin is the name for this ingredient in American English. British English uses Glycerol/Glycerine.

Learn more about Glycerin
Skin Conditioning
Loved

Panthenol is a common ingredient that helps hydrate and soothe the skin. It can be found naturally in our skin and hair.

This ingredient is also referred to as pro-vitamin B5 or dexpanthenol in dermatology.

Panthenol is famous due to its ability to go deeper into the skin's layers. Using this ingredient has numerous pros (and no cons):

Like hyaluronic acid, panthenol is a humectant. Humectants are able to bind and hold large amounts of water to keep skin hydrated.

Once oxidized, panthenol converts to pantothenic acid. Panthothenic acid is found in all living cells.

Learn more about Panthenol
Emollient, Masking, Skin Conditioning
Disliked

Helianthus Annuus Seed Oil is the oil derived from the seeds of a Sunflower. Sunflower seed oil is non-fragrant. It is an emollient, meaning it helps to soften the skin.

Sunflower seed oil contains many fatty acids. The fatty acids found in sunflower seeds include (from highest amount to least): linoleic acid, myristic acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid, arachidic acid, oleic acid, and linolenic acid.

These fatty acids help the skin create ceramides. Ceramides play a role in repairing the skin barrier.

Helianthus Annuus Seed Oil helps moisturize the skin. This in turn helps the skin look more rejuvenated and smoother.

Sunflowers are rich in vitamin E.

Historians believe Indigenous cultures of North America domesticated sunflowers before corn. Thus they relied on sunflower oil for a variety of uses. One such use is moisturizing skin and hair.

Sunflower seed oil may not be fungal acne safe. We recommend speaking with a professional if you have any concerns.

Learn more about Helianthus Annuus Seed Oil
Humectant, Masking, Skin Conditioning
Loved

Sorbitol is a sugar alcohol. It is a hydrating and moisturizing agent created from the reduction process of glucose.

Most sorbitol is usually made from potato starch. It is also found in fruits such as apples and pears.

As a humectant, Sorbitol helps draw water to the skin. This helps keep the skin hydrated. Sorbitol also helps create a thicker texture in products. You might find sorbitol in your toothpaste and other gels.

It is a non-irritating ingredient that is great for those with dry skin.

Sorbitol is a prebiotic. It helps promote the growth of healthy bacteria on your skin. The bacteria on your skin form a microbiome. This microbiome helps protect your skin from infection and harmful bacteria.

Learn more about Sorbitol
Humectant, Skin Conditioning
Liked

Dipotassium Glycyrrhizate comes from licorice root.

Extracts of licorice have demonstrated to have antibacterial, anti‐inflammatory, antiviral, antioxidant properties.

One component, glabridin, has extra potent antioxidant and soothing properties. It has also been found to block pigmentation from UVB rays in guinea pigs.

Licorice Root also contains a flavonoid. Flavonoids are a natural substance from in plants. Flavonoids also have antioxidant properties.

Another component, glycyrrhizin, has been found to have anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial benefits. This may make licorice root extract effective at treating acne. However, more research is needed to support this.

Liquiritin is one of the flavone compounds found in licorice. It has been found to help lighten skin by preventing tyrosinase from reacting with tyrosine. When the two react, protein is converted to melanin. Melanin is the substance in your body that gives your features pigmentation.

Licorice root is native to Southern Europe and Asia. It has been used in traditional Chinese medicine to help with respiratory issues.

Learn more about Dipotassium Glycyrrhizate
Disliked

Disodium EDTA plays a role in making products more stable by aiding other preservatives.

It is a chelating agent, meaning it neutralizes metal ions that may be found in a product.

Disodium EDTA is a salt of edetic acid and is found to be safe in cosmetic ingredients.

Learn more about Disodium EDTA
Antioxidant, Skin Conditioning
Liked

Tocopheryl Acetate is AKA Vitamin E. It is an antioxidant and protects your skin from free radicals. Free radicals damage the skin by breaking down collagen.

One study found using Tocopheryl Acetate with Vitamin C decreased the number of sunburned cells.

Tocopheryl Acetate is commonly found in both skincare and dietary supplements.

Learn more about Tocopheryl Acetate
Skin Conditioning
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Adenosine is in every living organism. It is one of four components in nucleic acids that helps store our DNA.

Adenosine has many benefits when used. These benefits include hydrating the skin, smoothing skin, and reducing wrinkles. Once applied, adenosine increases collagen production. It also helps with improving firmness and tissue repair.

Studies have found adenosine may also help with wound healing.

In skincare products, Adenosine is usually derived from yeast.

Learn more about Adenosine
Skin Conditioning
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Bifida Ferment Lysate is derived from the fermentation of Bifida bacteria (often with dairy). It is a probiotic and helps to strengthen our skin's microbiome.

Having a healthy microbiome helps protect our skin against infection. It also helps our skin stay hydrated and healthy.

Studies also show this ingredient to be a promising soothing ingredient for sensitive skin.

Learn more about Bifida Ferment Lysate
Emollient, Skin Conditioning
Mixed

Camellia Japonica Seed Oil comes from the Japanese Camellia plant. This plant is native to East Asia and known as "Tsubaki" in Japanese.

Camellia Japonica Seed Oil is rich in oleic acid. This makes it a great emollient. Emollients help soften and soothe the skin by forming a barrier. This barrier traps moisture within, keeping your skin hydated.

We don't have a description for Hibiscus Esculentus Fruit Extract.

Emollient
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Macadamia Ternifolia Seed Oil is the fixed oil obtained from Macadamia nut.

Macadamia seed oil is rich in fatty acids, including oleic acid (45-75%), palmitoleic acid (7-33%), and palmitic acid (6-12%). They also contain various B vitamins, iron, and magnesium.

Palmitoleic acid has been shown to help soothe inflammation and promote wound healing. It is also naturally found in the fat of our skin.

Macadamia seed oil may not be malassezia folliculitis, or fungal-acne, safe.

Learn more about Macadamia Ternifolia Seed Oil
Emollient
Mixed

Oenothera Biennis Oil is the fixed oil derived from the seeds of the Evening Primrose.

Evening primrose oil is rich in fatty acids. These fatty acids include linoleic (60-85%), oleic (5-12%), palmitic (4-10%), and stearic (2-4%).

The fatty acid composition makes it a great ingredient for soothing and moisturizing skin. However, it may not be Malassezia folliculitis, or fungal acne safe.

Further research is needed on the role of evening primrose in treating eczema.

Evening primrose is native to North America.

Learn more about Oenothera Biennis Oil
Masking, Perfuming, Skin Conditioning
Very Disliked

Olea Europaea Fruit Oil is the fixed oil obtained from the ripe fruit of the Olive. In other words - olive oil.

The primary contents of olive oil are glycerides of the fatty acids linoleic, oleic and palmitic.

Olive oil also contains antioxidants such as Vitamin E. Antioxidants may help reduce signs of aging by fighting unstable free-radical molecules. It also contains Vitamins A (retinol), D, and K.

The squalene in olive oil makes it a great emollient. Emollients help soothe and soften your skin by trapping moisture in. This makes olive oil a great skin moisturizer.

Studies show olive oil to have antibacterial and antifungal properties in low concentrations. Another study found olive oil irritated sensitive oily skin. We always recommend speaking with a professional about using this ingredient in your routine.

Learn more about Olea Europaea Fruit Oil
Emollient, Skin Conditioning
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Glycine Soja Oil comes from the soybean. Glycine Soja is native to eastern Asia.

Soybean oil is an emollient. It is rich in antioxidants and fatty acids including palmitic, stearic, oleic, and linoleic acids.

As an emollient, the fatty acids in soybean oil helps keep your skin soft and hydrated. It does so by creating a film on top that traps moisture in.

Soybean oil is also rich in vitamin E, a potent antioxidant. Vitamin E is also anti-inflammatory and provides a soothing effect.

Studies show soy may help fade hyperpigmentation from UVB. It does so by disrupting the melanin process from UVB induced skin inflammation.

This ingredient may not be malassezia folliculitis, or fungal-acne, safe.

Soybeans are rich in proteins and are part of the legume family. Foods made with soybeans include tofu, soymilk, edamame, miso, and soy sauce.

Learn more about Glycine Soja Oil
Masking, Skin Conditioning
Mixed

Arginine is an amino acid that is important for human development. Your body uses is it to produce hair keratin and skin collagen.

As a cosmetic ingredient, Arginine has antioxidant properties and can also help repair damaged skin. This ingredient is derived either synthetically or from animals.

Arginine isn't fungal acne safe when used in the presence of other lipids (fats, fatty acids, oils, esters, etc). Oils and fats occur naturally within the skin, so take caution when using Arginine if you're prone to fungal acne.

Learn more about Arginine
Skin Conditioning
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Daisy extract has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.

A study from 2021 found this extract to protect the skin against UV-A damage. This should not replace your sunscreen!

Emulsion Stabilising, Gel Forming
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Carbomer is a polymer of acrylic acid. Its main role is to create gel consistency within products.

Carbomer is commonly found in many types of cosmetics products. It is found to be safe in concentrations up to 15%. However, a high amount of carbomer can cause pilling or balling up of products. Most products contain 1% of less of carbomer.

Skin Conditioning

We don't have a description for Freesia Refracta Extract.

Skin Conditioning
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Houttuynia Cordata Extract is more commonly known as Heart Leaf, Fish Mint, or Chameleon plant.

The components found in Heart Leaf give it antioxidant, hydrating, antimicrobial, and anti-inflammatory properties.

Heart Leaf is rich in flavonoids such as quercetin, apigenin, and more. It also contains polysaccharides, the most common type of carbs in food.

Flavonoids have been shown to be effective antioxidants. They help neutralize free-radical molecules. Free-radical molecules are unstable molecules that may damage our skin cells and DNA. The flavonoids in Heart Leaf also help soothe the skin.

Polysaccharides are naturally found in our skin. They play a role in hydrating and repairing the top layer of skin. The polysaccharides in Heart Leaf help moisturize our skin.

Studies show decanoyl acetaldehyde, a component of Heart Leaf oil, is effective at killing bacteria.

The name 'Fish Mint' comes from the herb's natural fishy smell. Is is native to southeast Asia and used throughout the continent for traditional cooking and medicine.

Learn more about Houttuynia Cordata Extract
Skin Conditioning

We don't have a description for Leontopodium Alpinum Extract.

Skin Conditioning

We don't have a description for Lilium Candidum Flower Extract.

Skin Conditioning
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We don't have a description for Morus Alba Bark Extract.

Skin Conditioning
Liked

Nelumbium Speciosum Flower Extract comes from the Lotus Flower, Nelumbiumspeciosum.

Lotus flower extract has antioxidant properties from compounds such as flavonoids. Antioxidants may help reduce the signs of aging.

In traditional Asian medicine, Lotus flower seeds were used to help treat inflammation.

Learn more about Nelumbo Nucifera Flower Extract

We don't have a description for Ocimum Basilicum Flower/Leaf/Stem Extract.

Emollient, Skin Protecting, Tonic
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Panax Ginseng Root is a popular herb from Asia. This root contains antioxidants, favonoids, and vitamins B12 and D.

Ginseng Root helps increase skin hydration, even out texture and tone, and helps improve wrinkles.

Ginseng root helps improve blood circulation and oxygen flow. This in turn helps nourish the skin and improve wrinkles. By speeding up circulation, ginseng root can also help drain fluids.

Ginseng root contains both Vitamin D and B12. Both of these vitamins help boost collagen production in your skin. Collagen gives you skin the appearance of looking plump and firm.

Ginseng Root can also aid in decreasing inflammation.

Studies also show ginseng may help with hyperpigmentation. Ginseng disrupts the production of tyrosinase, an enzyme that starts the process of skin darkening.

Historically, people in East Asia have used ginseng as both food and medicine.

Learn more about Panax Ginseng Root Extract

We don't have a description for Saussurea Involucrata Extract.

Masking, Skin Conditioning
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Chamomilla Recutita Flower Extract comes from the Chamomile flower.

Chamomile is rich in antioxidants and has anti-inflammatory properties. Several compounds found in chamomile help with soothing, such as bisbolol.

Antioxidant components in chamomile make it an effective ingredient to help slow the signs of aging. Antioxidants help fight free-radical molecules, or molecules that may damage your skin.

Essential oils from chamomile have been found to improve wound healing due to its antimicrobial properties.

Ancient Greeks and Egyptians used Chamomile to treat skin redness and dryness. Chamomile has also been used to help treat stomach issues.

Learn more about Chamomilla Recutita Flower Extract
Skin Conditioning
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This extract comes from the Roselle flower, or Hibiscus Sabdariffa. Roselle flowers are rich in antioxidants and have anti-aging benefits.

Studies found the antioxidants in Roselle flowers to potentially help reduce UV-B damage.

Cleansing, Masking, Refreshing
Very Disliked

Lavandula Angustifolia Flower Extract comes from the lavender plant. Lavender extract has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties.

Many components of lavender flowers are antioxidants, such as ferulic acid, caffeic acid, and several flavonoids.

Traditional Iranian folk medicine uses Lavender extract to help treat inflammation.

Lavender extract may have a scent. It contains linalool, a known allergen. However, lavender extract contains less linalool than lavender essential oil.

Learn more about Lavandula Angustifolia Flower Extract

We don't have a description for Melissa Officinalis Leaf Extract.

Skin Conditioning
Very Disliked

Mentha Piperita Leaf Extract is extract from peppermint leaves.

Studies show peppermint extract have antimicrobial properties against some bacteria and fungi.

In large percentages, peppermint extract may sensitize the skin.

Learn more about Mentha Piperita Leaf Extract

We don't have a description for Mentha Rotundifolia Leaf Extract.

Skin Conditioning

We don't have a description for Monarda Didyma Leaf Extract.

Astringent, Masking, Skin Conditioning

We don't have a description for Rosa Centifolia Flower Extract.

Antimicrobial, Masking, Skin Conditioning
Mixed

Rosmarinus Officinalis Leaf Extract comes from rosemary. Rosemary is native to the Mediterranean.

While Rosmarinus Officinalis Leaf Oil can be volatile due to its fragrant properties, this component is usually removed in the leaf extract.

Rosemary Leaf Extract can help protect your skin against damage from free-radical molecules. It contains many antioxidants such as rosmarinic acid and caffeic acid. Rosemarinic acid has been found to help soothe skin conditions such as eczema and acne.

Learn more about Rosmarinus Officinalis Leaf Extract
Cleansing, Skin Conditioning, Tonic

We don't have a description for Salvia Officinalis Leaf Extract.

Emulsion Stabilising, Humectant, Skin Conditioning

We don't have a description for Sparassis Crispa Extract.

Skin Conditioning

We don't have a description for Sodium Palmitoyl Proline.

Preservative
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Potassium Sorbate is a preservative used to prevent yeast and mold in products. It is commonly found in both cosmetic and food products.

This ingredient comes from potassium salt derived from sorbic acid. Sorbic acid is a natural antibiotic and effective against fungus.

Both potassium sorbate and sorbic acid can be found in baked goods, cheeses, dried meats, dried fruit, ice cream, pickles, wine, yogurt, and more.

You'll often find this ingredient used with other preservatives.

Learn more about Potassium Sorbate
Abrasive, Antioxidant, Emollient
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Avena Sativa Kernel Extract is is derived from colloidal oatmeal. Besides being a healthy breakfast, oats have many benefits in skincare too.

This ingredient helps sooth, hydrate, and protect the skin. The starches in colloidal oatmeal are able to bind water, keeping the skin hydrated.

The cellulose and fiber in colloidal oatmeal help reduce inflammation. This can also help the skin feel softer.

Colloidal Oatmeal is also an antioxidant. Antioxidants protect our skin from free-radical damage.

Oatmeal also contains beneficial compounds:

This ingredient is created by mixing grounded oatmeal and a liquid base.

Learn more about Avena Sativa Kernel Extract
Skin Protecting
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Hippophae Rhamnoides Fruit Oil comes from the seabuckthorn berry. The seabuckthorn fruit contains carotenoids, palmitic acid, palmitoleic acid and vitamin E.

The nutritious content of seabuckthorn fruit oil helps hydrate and nourish the skin. A study from 2018 found seabuckthorn may help with alleviating UV damage due to its anti-inflammatory property.

Carotenoids and Vitamin E help nourish your skin's natural barrier. This barrier protects your skin and is responsible for firm skin.

Learn more about Hippophae Rhamnoides Fruit Oil
Humectant, Skin Conditioning
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Hydrolyzed Hyaluronic Acid is a form of hyaluronic acid. It is created by the hydrolysis of hyaluronic acid with a high molecular weight. Once created, Hydrolyzed Hyaluronic Acid has a low molecular weight.

Low molecular weight HA has been shown to hydrate and increase elasticity of the skin. Increasing elasticity is also associated with reduction of wrinkle depth.

One study found topical low molecular weight hyaluronic acid may be considered for the treatment of rosacea in the adult population. However, we always recommend speaking with a professional about your skin concerns.

Hyaluronic acids are a humectant. This means they draw moisture from the air. Hyaluronic acids help moisturize, soothe, and protect the skin.

Read more about other common forms of hyaluronic acid:

Learn more about Hydrolyzed Hyaluronic Acid
Emollient, Skin Conditioning

We don't have a description for Salvia Hispanica Seed Extract.

Cleansing, Skin Conditioning, Smoothing
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Centella Asiatica Extract (Centella) is derived from an herb native to Southeast Asia. It is famous for its anti-inflammatory and soothing properties.

Centella is rich in antioxidants and amino acids, such as Madecassic Acid and Asiaticoside.

Studies show the compounds in centella help with:

The combination of all these properties makes centella effective at soothing, hydrating, and protecting the skin.

Other great components of centella include Vitamin A, vitamin C, several B vitamins, and Asiatic Acid.

Fun fact: Centella has been used as a medicine and in food for many centuries. As a medicine, it is used to treat burns, scratches, and wounds.

Learn more about Centella Asiatica Extract
Antiseborrhoeic, Astringent, Skin Conditioning
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Hamamelis Virginiana Extract comes from the witch hazel plant.

Unless it is specified to be non-alcohol, many types of witch hazel ingredients are distilled in denatured alcohol.

Witch Hazel has astringent, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antibacterial properties.

The tannin content of witch hazel constrict the appearance of pores by drying out proteins. Witch hazel water gets anti-inflammatory and antibacterial properties from its catechin and gallic acid content.

However, witch hazel may be skin-sensitizing due to the tannin and fragrance compounds.

North American Indigenous groups have used witch hazel to help treat inflammation for centuries.

Learn more about Hamamelis Virginiana Extract
Skin Conditioning
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Portulaca Oleracea Extract is an extract of the whole plant of the Purslane, Portulaca oleracea L., Portulacaceae. It has anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and hydrating properties.

Purslane is very nutritious. It contains omega-3 fatty acids, NMFs, many vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants. The vitamins found in purslane include: Vitamin C, Vitamin A, and Vitamin E.

Purslane is a succulent with an extensive habitat. It is used in traditional Korean medicine to treat irritated skin.

Nowadays, it is becoming a superfood due to its highly nutritious content.

Learn more about Portulaca Oleracea Extract
Astringent, Humectant, Soothing
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Scutellaria Baicalensis Root Extract comes from the Baikal skullcap or Chinese skullcap plant. This plant is native to Northeast Asia and can be found in China, Mongolia, Korea, and Siberia.

In cosmetics, Scutellaria Baicalensis Root Extract provides antioxidant and anti-inflammatory benefits. This is due to the flavonoid composition of Scutellaria Baicalensis Root Extract.

In Chinese traditional folk medicine, Scutellaria Baicalensis Root Extract is used to help treat lung and hypertension.

Learn more about Scutellaria Baicalensis Root Extract
Emollient, Humectant, Skin Conditioning

Bixa Orellana Seed Oil is an oil and isn't fungal acne safe.

Skin Conditioning, Tonic

We don't have a description for Nymphaea Alba Flower Extract.

Masking, Perfuming
Very Disliked

Parfum is a catch-all term for an ingredient or more that is used to give a scent to products.

Also called "fragrance", this ingredient can be a blend of hundreds of chemicals or plant oils. This means every product with "fragrance" or "parfum" in the ingredients list is a different mixture.

In the US, the alternative name for parfum is 'fragrance'.

The term 'fragrance' is not regulated in many countries. In many cases, it is up to the brand to define this term.

For instance, many brands choose to label themselves as "fragrance-free" because they are not using synthetic fragrances. However, their products may still contain ingredients such as essential oils that are considered a fragrance by INCI standards.

One example is Calendula flower extract. Calendula is an essential oil that still imparts a scent or 'fragrance'.

Depending on the blend, the ingredients in the mixture can cause allergies and sensitivities on the skin. Some ingredients that are known EU allergens include linalool and citronellol.

Parfum can also be used to mask or cover an unpleasant scent.

The bottom line is: not all fragrances/parfum/ingredients are created equally. If you are worried about fragrances, we recommend taking a closer look at an ingredient. And of course, we always recommend speaking with a professional.

Learn more about Parfum
Perfuming
Very Disliked

Hexyl Cinnamal is a fragrance ingredient with a similar scent to jasmine. It can be naturally found in chamomile essential oil.

This ingredient is a known EU allergen and may sensitize the skin. The EU requires this ingredient to be listed separately on an ingredients list.

Hexyl Cinnamal is not water soluble but is soluble in oils.

Learn more about Hexyl Cinnamal
Perfuming, Solvent
Very Disliked

Limonene is a fragrance that adds scent and taste to a formulation.

It's found in the peel oil of citrus fruits and other plants such as lavender and eucalyptus. The scent of limonene is generally described as "sweet citrus".

Limonene acts as an antioxidant, meaning it helps neutralize free radicals.

When exposed to air, oxidized limonene may sensitize the skin. Because of this, limonene is often avoided by people with sensitive skin.

The term 'fragrance' is not regulated in many countries. In many cases, it is up to the brand to define this term. For instance, many brands choose to label themselves as "fragrance-free" because they are not using synthetic fragrances. However, their products may still contain ingredients such as essential oils that are considered a fragrance.

Learn more about Limonene
Perfuming
Very Disliked

Linalool is a fragrance and helps add scent to products. It's derived from common plants such as cinnamon, mint, citrus, and lavender.

Linalool has the same effect as Limonene when exposed to air. Oxidized linalool can cause allergies and skin sensitivity.

Linalool has a scent that is floral, spicy tropical, and citrus-like.

Learn more about Linalool
Perfuming
Very Disliked

Citronellol is used to add fragrance/parfum to a product. It is often derived from plants such as roses. In fact, it can be found in many essential oils including geranium, lavender, neroli, and more. The scent of Citronellol is often described as "fresh, grassy, and citrus-like".

Since the Citronellol molecule is already unstable, Citronellol becomes irritating on the skin when exposed to air.

Citronellol is a modified terpene. Terpenes are unsaturated hydrocarbons found in plants. They make up the primary part of essential oils.

Citronellol is not able to be absorbed into deeper layers of the skin. It has low permeability,

Citronellol is also a natural insect repellent.

Learn more about Citronellol

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