Explore Routine Login

Urban Skin Even Tone Resurfacing at Home Peel Pads Ingredients Explained

Exfoliator
0
0
3
0

Published on February 09, 2023 Submitted by rizzsmiles

Overview

What it is

Exfoliator with 33 ingredients that contains AHA, niacinamide and retinoid

Cool Features

It is cruelty-free and reef safe

Suited For

It has ingredients that are good for fighting acne, anti aging, dry skin, brightening skin, sensitive skin, oily skin, reducing pores, scar healing, dark spots and better texture

Free From

It doesn't contain any harsh alcohols, common allergens, parabens, silicones or sulfates

Fun facts

Urban Skin is from United States. This product is used in 1 routines created by our community.

We independently verify ingredients and our claims are backed by peer-reviewed research. Does this product need an update? Let us know.

Exfoliator with 33 ingredients that contains AHA, niacinamide and retinoid

Quick info

You should know

Notable Ingredients

Benefits

Concerns

Ingredients 33

Water Skin Conditioning, Solvent

Water. It's the most common cosmetic ingredient of all. You'll usually see it at the top of ingredient lists, meaning that it makes up the largest part of the product.

Lactic Acid Buffering, Humectant, Skin Conditioning
AHA IconGood for Skin Texture IconGood for Minimizing Pores IconHelps with Anti-Aging IconGood for Dark Spots IconGood for Scar Healing IconHelps brighten skin IconMay cause irritation IconMay worsen Eczema IconMay worsen Rosacea Icon
AHAAHA Icon 6 Benefits 3 Concerns

Lactic Acid is an AHA that is derived from fermenting lactose, a carbohydrate from milk. It removes the top layer of old and dead skin cells and helps increase cell turnover.

Sodium Hydroxide Buffering

Sodium Hydroxide is also known as lye or caustic soda. It is used to adjust the pH of products; many ingredients require a specific pH to be effective.

1,2-Hexanediol Skin Conditioning, Solvent

1,2-Hexanediol is a multi-tasker ingredient. It acts as a preservative to increase shelf-life and can aid other preservatives in preventing microbe growth. 1,2-Hexanediol also helps the skin retain moisture as a humectant.

Phytic Acid
AHA IconHelps brighten skin IconMay worsen Rosacea Icon
AHAAHA Icon Helps brighten skinHelps brighten skin Icon May worsen RosaceaMay worsen Rosacea Icon

Phytic Acid is a gentle AHA and antioxidant. The chemical makeup makes it classified as an AHA, such as lactic acid.

Ricinus Communis Seed Oil Masking, Perfuming, Skin Conditioning
0-1 / 0 Fragrance IconOil IconNot safe for Fungal Acne Icon
FragranceFragrance Icon OilOil Icon Not safe for Fungal AcneNot safe for Fungal Acne Icon

Ricinus Communis Seed Oil is the INCI name for castor oil.

0-1 Com. / 0 Irr.
Disliked Full details ->
Bambusa Vulgaris Leaf/Stem Extract Humectant

Bambusa Vulgaris Leaf/Stem Extract comes from bamboo plant.

Pisum Sativum Extract Skin Conditioning, Skin Protecting

We don't have a description for Pisum Sativum Extract.

Medicago Sativa Extract Tonic

Medicago Sativa Extract is derived from Alfalfa. It contains antioxidants. Antioxidants help fight free-radicals. Free-radicals are molecules that may damage your skin cells, such as pollution.

Camellia Sinensis Leaf Extract Antimicrobial, Antioxidant, Astringent
Antioxidant IconHelps reduce Skin Redness IconHelps reduce irritation IconGood for Minimizing Pores IconHelps with Anti-Aging IconHelps fight Acne Icon
AntioxidantAntioxidant Icon 5 Benefits

Camellia Sinensis Leaf Extract is derived from the leaves of the tea plant. Black tea, green tea, and oolong tea are all harvested from this plant.

Chamomilla Recutita Flower Extract Masking, Skin Conditioning
Helps reduce Skin Redness IconHelps reduce irritation Icon
2 Benefits

Chamomilla Recutita Flower Extract comes from the Chamomile flower.

Glycerin Humectant, Skin Conditioning, Skin Protecting
0 / 0 Helps hydrate Dry Skin IconHelps brighten skin Icon
2 Benefits

Glycerin is already naturally found in your skin. It helps moisturize and protect your skin.

0 Com. / 0 Irr.
Caprylyl/Capryl Glucoside Cleansing, Foaming

Caprylyl/Capryl Glucoside is an alkyl glucoside. This just means it is creating by reacting alcohol and sugar. It is a cleansing and foaming ingredient.

Arbutin Antioxidant, Bleaching, Skin Conditioning
Antioxidant IconGood for Dark Spots IconGood for Scar Healing Icon
AntioxidantAntioxidant Icon 2 Benefits

Arbutin is derived from the bearberry plant. It helps even out skin tone and reduce hyperpigmentation.

Niacinamide Smoothing
Niacinamide IconGood for Oily Skin IconHelps reduce Skin Redness IconGood for Minimizing Pores IconGood for Dark Spots IconHelps fight Acne IconHelps brighten skin Icon
NiacinamideNiacinamide Icon 6 Benefits

Niacinamide has emerged as an all-star ingredient due to its many benefits.

Glutathione

Glutathione is an antioxidant naturally found in our bodies. It is made up of three amino acids: glycine, cysteine, and glutamic acid.

Allantoin Skin Conditioning, Skin Protecting, Soothing
0 / 0 Helps reduce Skin Redness IconHelps reduce irritation IconGood for Scar Healing Icon
3 Benefits

Allantoin plays a role in soothing and moisturizing the skin. Because of this, it is often added to products with strong active ingredients.

0 Com. / 0 Irr.
Bisabolol Masking, Skin Conditioning, Soothing
Helps reduce irritation Icon
Helps reduce irritationHelps reduce irritation Icon

Bisabolol is pimarily used to add fragrance to a product. However, it is also famous for helping soothe skin.

Polysorbate 20 Emulsifying
0 / 0 Not safe for Fungal Acne Icon
Not safe for Fungal AcneNot safe for Fungal Acne Icon

Polysorbate 20 is made by combining ethoxylation of sorbitan, ethylene oxide, and lauric acid. It is a mild cleansing agent, surfactant, and emulsifier.

0 Com. / 0 Irr.
Very Disliked Full details ->
Retinol Skin Conditioning
Retinoid IconGood for Oily Skin IconGood for Skin Texture IconGood for Minimizing Pores IconHelps with Anti-Aging IconGood for Dark Spots IconGood for Scar Healing IconHelps fight Acne IconHelps brighten skin IconCan worsen Dry Skin IconMay cause irritation IconMay worsen Eczema Icon
RetinoidRetinoid Icon 8 Benefits 3 Concerns

Retinol is a gold-standard ingredient for anti-aging. It is a form of Vitamin A and belongs to the class of retinoids that also includes tretinoin.

Ethylhexylglycerin Skin Conditioning

Ethylhexylglycerin (we can't pronounce this either) is commonly used as a preservative and skin softener. It is derived from glyceryl.

Phenoxyethanol Preservative
Preservative Icon
PreservativePreservative Icon

Phenoxyethanol is a preservative that has germicide, antimicrobial, and aromatic properties. Studies show that phenoxyethanol can prevent microbial growth. By itself, it has a scent that is similar to that of a rose.

Very Disliked Full details ->
Biosaccharide Gum-5 Skin Conditioning

We don't have a description for Biosaccharide Gum-5.

Unknown Full details ->
Glucosamine Hcl

We don't have a description for Glucosamine Hcl.

Sodium Cocoyl Glutamate Cleansing

Sodium Cocoyl Glutamate is a gentle cleanser and surfactant. It is the sodium salt of the Cocoyl Glutamic Acid and comes from coconut oil. As a surfactant, it helps lift dirt and oil to be washed away.

Glyceryl Caprylate Emollient, Emulsifying

Glyceryl Caprylate comes from glycerin and caprylic acid, a fatty acid from coconut.

Polyglyceryl-6 Oleate Emulsifying
Not safe for Fungal Acne Icon
Not safe for Fungal AcneNot safe for Fungal Acne Icon

Polyglyceryl-6 Oleate isn't fungal acne safe.

Unknown Full details ->
Sodium Benzoate Masking, Preservative
Preservative Icon
PreservativePreservative Icon

Sodium Benzoate is a preservative. It's used in both cosmetic and food products to inhibit the growth of mold and bacteria. It is typically produced synthetically.

Disliked Full details ->
Sodium Surfactin Cleansing, Emulsifying, Gel Forming

We don't have a description for Sodium Surfactin.

Unknown Full details ->
Azelaic Acid Buffering, Masking
Helps reduce Skin Redness IconGood for Minimizing Pores IconGood for Dark Spots IconGood for Scar Healing IconHelps fight Acne Icon
5 Benefits

Azelaic acid is a naturally occurring acid derived from grains. This ingredient is effective in treating acne, rosacea, and other skin conditions.

Kojic Acid Antioxidant
Antioxidant IconGood for Dark Spots IconGood for Scar Healing Icon
AntioxidantAntioxidant Icon 2 Benefits

Kojic acid comes from fungi and can also be from fermented foods. It helps even out skin tone and reduce hyperpigmentation.

Gluconic Acid

Gluconic acid is a mild acid and PHA.

Citric Acid Buffering, Masking
AHA IconGood for Skin Texture IconGood for Minimizing Pores IconGood for Scar Healing IconHelps brighten skin IconMay cause irritation IconMay worsen Rosacea Icon
AHAAHA Icon 4 Benefits 2 Concerns

Citric Acid is an AHA derived from citrus fruits (think oranges, lemons, and limes!).

Disliked Full details ->

Ingredient Ratings

Based on the number of likes and dislikes each ingredient has received.

19
6
5
3
liked
mixed
disliked
not rated

Ingredients Explained

This product contains 33 ingredients. Click on any ingredient to learn more about it
Skin Conditioning, Solvent
Loved

Water. It's the most common cosmetic ingredient of all. You'll usually see it at the top of ingredient lists, meaning that it makes up the largest part of the product.

So why is it so popular? Water most often acts as a solvent - this means that it helps dissolve other ingredients into the formulation.

You'll also recognize water as that liquid we all need to stay alive. If you see this, drink a glass of water. Stay hydrated!

Learn more about Water
Buffering, Humectant, Skin Conditioning
Loved

Lactic Acid is an AHA that is derived from fermenting lactose, a carbohydrate from milk. It removes the top layer of old and dead skin cells and helps increase cell turnover.

Benefits of Lactic Acid are that it can help to reduce large pores and reduce the effects of aging. Some potential downsides are that it can be bad for dry skin, cause irritation, worsen eczema, and worsen rosacea.

Not only does it help exfoliate the skin, it helps strengthen the skin's barrier. When applied, lactic acid helps the skin create ceramides.

Lactic acid is an over-the-counter chemical exfoliant that comes from the fermentation of lactose β€” a carbohydrate found in milk.

Legend has it that Cleopatra used to bathe in sour milk to help reduce wrinkles.

Read more about some other popular AHA's here:

Learn more about Lactic Acid
Buffering
Mixed

Sodium Hydroxide is also known as lye or caustic soda. It is used to adjust the pH of products; many ingredients require a specific pH to be effective.

In small amounts, sodium hydroxide is considered safe to use. However, large amounts may cause chemical burns due to its high alkaline.

Your skin has a natural pH and acid mantle. This acid mantle helps prevent harmful bacteria from breaking through. The acid mantle also helps keep your skin hydrated.

"Alkaline" refers to a high pH level. A low pH level would be considered acidic.

Learn more about Sodium Hydroxide
Skin Conditioning, Solvent
Mixed

1,2-Hexanediol is a multi-tasker ingredient. It acts as a preservative to increase shelf-life and can aid other preservatives in preventing microbe growth. 1,2-Hexanediol also helps the skin retain moisture as a humectant.

In products that are water-based, this ingredient can help stabilize perfumes and fragrances. It can also help make the texture of products softer and more smooth.

Liked

Phytic Acid is a gentle AHA and antioxidant. The chemical makeup makes it classified as an AHA, such as lactic acid.

AHAs are chemical exfoliants that help remove dead skin cells. Phytic Acid has a slight exfoliating effect. Phytic Acid has been shown to help calm irritation. In some cases, it is a chelating agent. Chelating agents help prevent metals from binding to water, helping to stabilize the ingredients in a product.

As an antioxidant, phytic acid may help with the signs of aging. Antioxidants help neutralize free-radical molecules. These molecules may damage your skin cells.

An interesting fact about phytic acid is that it is considered an antinutrient. People do not have the enzyme needed to properly breakdown and digest phytic acid. When ingested, phytic acid binds to minerals and prevents them from being absorbed.

Read more about some other popular AHA's here:

Learn more about Phytic Acid
Masking, Perfuming, Skin Conditioning
Disliked

Ricinus Communis Seed Oil is the INCI name for castor oil.

Castor Oil helps moisturize the skin. It is rich in a fatty acid called ricinoleic acid. This fatty acid helps prevent moisture loss on the skin. This helps keep your skin soft and hydrated. Ricinoleic acid also has anti-inflammatory and pain reducing properties.

Besides hydrating the skin, castor oil is also used to hydrate hair. By keeping the hair shaft moisturized, breakage is decreased. More studies are needed to show castor oil's effective on stimulating hair growth.

Castor oil is created by cold-pressing castor seeds and then purifying the oil with heat. It was used in Ancient Egypt as fuel in lamps and to help treat eye irritation.

The term 'fragrance' is not regulated in many countries. In many cases, it is up to the brand to define this term. For instance, many brands choose to label themselves as "fragrance-free" because they are not using synthetic fragrances. However, their products may still contain ingredients such as essential oils that are considered a fragrance.

Learn more about Ricinus Communis Seed Oil

Bambusa Vulgaris Leaf/Stem Extract comes from bamboo plant.

Bamboo extract has antioxidant properties. Antioxidants help fight free-radicals. Free-radicals are molecules that may damage your skin cells, such as pollution.

A recent study found bamboo extract might interrupt the process of hyperpigmentation.

Learn more about Bambusa Vulgaris Leaf/Stem Extract
Skin Conditioning, Skin Protecting
Liked

We don't have a description for Pisum Sativum Extract.

Medicago Sativa Extract is derived from Alfalfa. It contains antioxidants. Antioxidants help fight free-radicals. Free-radicals are molecules that may damage your skin cells, such as pollution.

Alfalfa is also known as lucerne in the UK, South Africa, and the oceania countries. Ancient Greece and Rome used this plant to feed livestock.

Antimicrobial, Antioxidant, Astringent
Loved

Camellia Sinensis Leaf Extract is derived from the leaves of the tea plant. Black tea, green tea, and oolong tea are all harvested from this plant.

This ingredient has many skin benefits:

This ingredient contains polyphenols, a strong antioxidant. Antioxidants help fight off molecules that damage skin cells.

On top of that, the antioxidants in green tea neutralize free-radicals from the sun. This gives the skin some extra UV protection, but should not replace sunscreen.

Many components of tea have anti-inflammatory properties.

Polyphenols and L-theanine help soothe the skin and reduce irritation. The caffeine in Camellia Sinensis Leaf Extract helps calm inflamed blood vessels.

Other compounds found in tea include: Vitamin Bs, linoleic acid, magnesium, calcium, iron, and zinc.

Research has shown both drinking Camellia Sinensis Leaf Tea and applying it to the skin can help boost skin elasticity and hydration. Studies also show using tea extract may reduce sebum, or oil, production.

Learn more about Camellia Sinensis Leaf Extract
Masking, Skin Conditioning
Liked

Chamomilla Recutita Flower Extract comes from the Chamomile flower.

Chamomile is rich in antioxidants and has anti-inflammatory properties. Several compounds found in chamomile help with soothing, such as bisbolol.

Antioxidant components in chamomile make it an effective ingredient to help slow the signs of aging. Antioxidants help fight free-radical molecules, or molecules that may damage your skin.

Essential oils from chamomile have been found to improve wound healing due to its antimicrobial properties.

Ancient Greeks and Egyptians used Chamomile to treat skin redness and dryness. Chamomile has also been used to help treat stomach issues.

Learn more about Chamomilla Recutita Flower Extract
Humectant, Skin Conditioning, Skin Protecting
Loved

Glycerin is already naturally found in your skin. It helps moisturize and protect your skin.

A study from 2016 found glycerin to be more effective as a humectant than AHAs and hyaluronic acid.

As a humectant, it helps the skin stay hydrated by pulling moisture to your skin. The low molecular weight of glycerin allows it to pull moisture into the deeper layers of your skin.

Hydrated skin improves your skin barrier; Your skin barrier helps protect against irritants and bacteria.

Glycerin has also been found to have antimicrobial and antiviral properties. Due to these properties, glycerin is often used in wound and burn treatments.

In cosmetics, glycerin is usually derived from plants such as soybean or palm. However, it can also be sourced from animals, such as tallow or animal fat.

This ingredient is organic, colorless, odorless, and non-toxic.

Glycerin is the name for this ingredient in American English. British English uses Glycerol/Glycerine.

Learn more about Glycerin
Cleansing, Foaming
Liked

Caprylyl/Capryl Glucoside is an alkyl glucoside. This just means it is creating by reacting alcohol and sugar. It is a cleansing and foaming ingredient.

Caprylyl/Capryl Glucoside helps remove the dirt, oil, and other pollutants from your skin.

Antioxidant, Bleaching, Skin Conditioning
Loved

Arbutin is derived from the bearberry plant. It helps even out skin tone and reduce hyperpigmentation.

This ingredient has the ability to block tyrosinase, an enzyme that starts the process of skin darkening. When applied to the skin, arbutin works at a slow pace. This can make it less irritating than similar ingredients.

Kojic Acid is a similar ingredient.

Learn more about Arbutin
Smoothing
Loved

Niacinamide has emerged as an all-star ingredient due to its many benefits.

It is known to treat acne by reducing inflammation. It also helps fade dark-spots and strengthen the skin by promoting the growth of the ceramide barrier.

Other benefits include smoothing wrinkles and minimizing redness.

The cherry on top? Niacinamide can also help build keratin, a protein that keeps skin firm.

When incorporating niacinamide into your routine, look out for concentration amounts. Typically, 5% niacinamide provides benefits such as fading dark spots. However, if you have sensitive skin, it is better to begin with a smaller concentration.

Niacinamide can be mixed with other ingredients to boost benefits. For instance, it has shown to be effective when used with copper, folic acid, and zinc to treat acne.

Learn more about Niacinamide
Loved

Glutathione is an antioxidant naturally found in our bodies. It is made up of three amino acids: glycine, cysteine, and glutamic acid.

As an antioxidant, it prevents oxidative damage to parts of our cell.

While glutathione is said to help with skin lightening, the results from research are inconclusive. Further studies are needed.

However, gluthatione has been shown to protect our skin from UV-B induced damage.

This ingredient is naturally occurring in plants, animals, fungi, and some bacteria.

Learn more about Glutathione
Skin Conditioning, Skin Protecting, Soothing
Loved

Allantoin plays a role in soothing and moisturizing the skin. Because of this, it is often added to products with strong active ingredients.

Some studies have shown this ingredient can promote wound healing with higher concentrations.

Allantoin is derived from the comfrey plant but produced synthetically for cosmetic products to ensure purity.

Learn more about Allantoin
Masking, Skin Conditioning, Soothing
Loved

Bisabolol is pimarily used to add fragrance to a product. However, it is also famous for helping soothe skin.

Bisabolol comes from German chamomile essential oil. Synthetic Bisabolol has been shown to be less effective.

Bisabolol helps soothe skin. It does this by blocking the inflammatory signals, helping to reduce your body's reaction to irritation.

Bisabolol also interferes with the process of hyperpigmentation. This can help with reducing dark spots and uneven tone.

Bisabolol is an antioxidant. Antioxidants help fight free-radicals. Free-radicals are molecules that may damage your skin cells. By fighting these free-radicals, Bisabolol may slow down signs of aging.

Studies have shown Bisabolol to have antimicrobial properties and may be a fungicide. These properties help preserve a product's shelf life.

Bisabolol also helps the absorption of other ingredients.

Learn more about Bisabolol
Emulsifying
Very Disliked

Polysorbate 20 is made by combining ethoxylation of sorbitan, ethylene oxide, and lauric acid. It is a mild cleansing agent, surfactant, and emulsifier.

As a surfactant, it helps collect dirt and oils for washing. Emulsifiers prevent oils and water from separating.

Polysorbate 20 also adds scent to a product. Since it is made using sorbitol, it has a sweet scent. Sorbitol can also be found in fruits such as apples and peaches.

The lauric acid used to create Polysorbate 20 is often derived from coconuts.

Polysorbate 20 may not be fungal acne safe.

Learn more about Polysorbate 20
Skin Conditioning
Loved

Retinol is a gold-standard ingredient for anti-aging. It is a form of Vitamin A and belongs to the class of retinoids that also includes tretinoin.

Why is retinol famous?

It has the most scientific studies backing up its skin benefits out of all the non-prescription ingredients.

Retinol is proven to:

This is why retinol is effective at removing wrinkles, fading dark spots, treating acne, and reducing the appearance of pores.

Studies show retinol is less effective when exposed to UV. Be sure to look for appropriate packaging to keep your retinol potent (similar to Vitamin C).

Using retinol or any retinoids will increase sun-sensitivity in the first few months. Though studies show retinoids increase your skin's natural SPF with continuous use, it is best to always wear sunscreen and sun-protection.

We recommend speaking with a medical professional about using this ingredient during pregnancy.

Retinol may cause irritation in some people, so be sure to patch test. Experts recommend 'ramping up' retinol use: start using this ingredient once a week and work up to using it daily.

Read about Tretinoin

Learn more about Retinol
Skin Conditioning
Mixed

Ethylhexylglycerin (we can't pronounce this either) is commonly used as a preservative and skin softener. It is derived from glyceryl.

You might see Ethylhexylglycerin often paired with other preservatives such as phenoxyethanol. Ethylhexylglycerin has been found to increase the effectiveness of these other preservatives.

Preservative
Very Disliked

Phenoxyethanol is a preservative that has germicide, antimicrobial, and aromatic properties. Studies show that phenoxyethanol can prevent microbial growth. By itself, it has a scent that is similar to that of a rose.

It's often used in formulations along with Caprylyl Glycol to preserve the shelf life of products.

Skin Conditioning

We don't have a description for Biosaccharide Gum-5.

We don't have a description for Glucosamine Hcl.

Cleansing
Mixed

Sodium Cocoyl Glutamate is a gentle cleanser and surfactant. It is the sodium salt of the Cocoyl Glutamic Acid and comes from coconut oil. As a surfactant, it helps lift dirt and oil to be washed away.

Sodium Cocoyl Glutamate also has an emolliating effect and can help leave the skin feeling soft.

Emollient, Emulsifying
Mixed

Glyceryl Caprylate comes from glycerin and caprylic acid, a fatty acid from coconut.

Glyceryl Caprylate is used for its emollient and emulsifier properties.

As an emollient, it helps hydrate your skin. Emollients work by creating a barrier on your skin to trap moisture in, helping to keep your skin soft and smooth.

Glyceryl Caprylate helps keep the ingredients such as oil and water together as an emulsifier.

Learn more about Glyceryl Caprylate
Emulsifying

Polyglyceryl-6 Oleate isn't fungal acne safe.

Masking, Preservative
Disliked

Sodium Benzoate is a preservative. It's used in both cosmetic and food products to inhibit the growth of mold and bacteria. It is typically produced synthetically.

Both the US FDA and EU Health Committee have approved the use of sodium benzoate. In the US, levels of 0.1% (of the total product) are allowed.

Sodium benzoate works as a preservative by inhibiting the growth of bacteria inside of cells. It prevents the cell from fermenting a type of sugar using an enzyme called phosphofructokinase.

Sodium Benzoate is the salt of benzoic acid. Foods containing sodium benzoate include soda, salad dressings, condiments, fruit juices, wines, and snack foods.

Studies for using ascorbic acid and sodium benzoate in cosmetics are lacking, especially in skincare routines with multiple steps.

We always recommend speaking with a professional, such as a dermatologist, if you have any concerns.

Learn more about Sodium Benzoate
Cleansing, Emulsifying, Gel Forming

We don't have a description for Sodium Surfactin.

Buffering, Masking
Loved

Azelaic acid is a naturally occurring acid derived from grains. This ingredient is effective in treating acne, rosacea, and other skin conditions.

It has been shown to reduce the growth of acne-causing bacteria and helps reduce inflammation. On top of that, it helps reduce the production of sebum and unclog pores.

Azelaic Acid also has antioxidant properties. Antioxidants protect our skin cells from free-radical damage.

One of the main benefits of azelaic acid is that it is gentle and well-tolerated by most people. It is also non-comedogenic, meaning that it will not clog pores.

Fun fact: The lab-created form of azelaic acid is typically used within cosmetic products for its shelf-stability.

Learn more about Azelaic Acid
Antioxidant
Loved

Kojic acid comes from fungi and can also be from fermented foods. It helps even out skin tone and reduce hyperpigmentation.

This ingredient works by blocking tyrosine, an enzyme that starts the process of skin darkening.

Kojic Acid is antifungal and often used to treat fungal infections. Additionally, it can help fight bacteria with its antimicrobrial properties. This can help treat acne as well.

A similar ingredient is arbutin.

Learn more about Kojic Acid

Gluconic acid is a mild acid and PHA.

PHAs are more gentle than AHAs due to their larger structure. They do not penetrate as deeply as AHAs and take a longer time to dissolve dead cells. Studies show PHAs do not cause as much irritation.

This ingredient also has chelating properties. This means it is often used to remove or inactivate unwanted metals in formulations.

PHAs also exhibit antioxidant activity by neutralizing free-radical molecules. This can help with anti-aging.

Fun fact: Gluconic acid can be naturally found in honey, wine, and fruit.

Learn more about Gluconic Acid
Buffering, Masking
Disliked

Citric Acid is an AHA derived from citrus fruits (think oranges, lemons, and limes!).

As an AHA, Citric Acid removes the top layer of skin cells from the newer layer of skin underneath. This helps skin to remove dark spots and even out skin tone.

If you spot Citric Acid near the end of an ingredient list, it's likely there as a pH adjuster rather than an active ingredient.

Read more about some other popular AHA's here:

Learn more about Citric Acid

Reviews

Help out the community - be the first to rate this product.

Compared With

Here are some products that it's often compared with

Verified by SkinSort

We're dedicated to providing you with the most up-to-date and science-backed ingredient info out there.

The data we've presented on this page has been verified by a member of the SkinSort Team.

Read more about us